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使用 Debootstrap 构建 Chroot 环境

This article shows you how to use debootstrap to build a chroot environment that you can use for various needs, from trying out the latest (or even oldest ;) Ubuntu releases, or even working with Debian releases, to utilizing the chroot as a package building environment.

这是一篇向您展示如何使用 debootstrap 来构建一个 chroot 环境,您可以用它来尝试最新(甚至最老)的 Ubuntu 版本 ,可以用它来运行 Debian 版本,甚至还可以用它来做为创建软件包的环境。

You can work anywhere - this Howto will assume you're using /var/chroot . It will also assume that you want to install a BreezyBadger chroot; if you are going to use other Ubuntu releases, replace breezy below with warty for WartyWarthog, hoary for HoaryHedgehog, or dapper for DapperDrake.

您可以在任何目录下运行-本指南假定你使用的是/var/chroot ,同时它还将指定您想安装的是 BreezyBadger chroot 环境;如果您打算使用 别的 Ubuntu 版本 ,请将breezy 替换成warty 用于安装 WartyWarthog、替换成 hoary 用于安装 HoaryHedgehog或者替换成 dapper 用于安装 DapperDrake.

Getting and installing debootstrap 获得并安装 DebootStrap

For the least pain and gnashing of teeth, please get the Ubuntu binary packages manually:

Example: Terminal session wget-ing and installing the latest Dapper debootstrap:

wget http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/main/d/debootstrap/debootstrap_0.3.3.0ubuntu2_all.deb
sudo dpkg --install debootstrap_0.3.3.0ubuntu2_all.deb

Installing and configuring dchroot 安装配置 Dchroot

dchroot is a convenient means of managing chroot environments; with this tool you can have both Breezy, Dapper, and even Debian Sid chroots in your Ubuntu install, and using a chroot environment is a simple as dchroot -c dapper -d ;)

To get it dchroot working in your system, just do the following in a Terminal:

sudo apt-get install dchroot
sudo mkdir /var/chroot # Remember, we assume our chroot is here
sudo editor /etc/dchroot.conf

Then append this line in /etc/dchroot.conf:

mychroot /var/chroot

Setting up your chroot with debootstrap 使用 DebootStrap 来设置您的 Chroot

If you want a 32-bit chroot on amd64 add --arch i386 to this command line. If you use the chroot to build packages add --variant=buildd . Change breezy to according to your needs to warty, hoary, or dapper, or leave as is for breezy chroot.

如果您想在 AMD64上模拟 32 位的 Chroot 环境的话,添加 --arch i386 参数。如果您使用 chroot 环境编译该包的话,添加 --variant=buildd 参数。将breezy按您的需要替换成 wartyhoarydapper,或保留它以创建 breezy chroot 环境。

To actually install the base chroot, open a Terminal and do:

sudo debootstrap --variant=buildd --arch i386 breezy /var/chroot/ http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/

debootstrap will then build a BreezyBadger chroot in /var/chroot/, getting the base packages in http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/, and, depending on the given additional options (in square brackets,) debootstrap will build a chroot for the given architecture and variant.

If debootstrap finishes successfully, you'll be left with a base chroot in /var/chroot, which is, well, hardly suitable for anything very interesting. To actually get our chroot to work and be able to, say, grab packages from the network, do the following right after debootstrap:

sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /var/chroot/etc/resolv.conf
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /var/chroot/etc/apt/
sudo sed -i s/dapper/breezy/g /var/chroot/etc/apt/sources.list #point apt-get to the right release
sudo chroot /var/chroot/
apt-get update
apt-get install wget debconf devscripts gnupg  #For package-building
apt-get update  #clean the gpg error message
apt-get install locales dialog  #If you don't talk en_US 
dpkg-reconfigure locales
tzconfig  #Configure and use our local time instead of UTC
exit

You can stop here if you want and have a simple chroot that you use as root (sudo chroot /var/chroot). If you want to use your chroot as another user and have access to your normal /home etc inside the chroot, carry on ;)

If you want to build a Debian chroot on an Ubuntu system you need to point it at a Debian archive:

sudo debootstrap --arch i386 sid sid/ http://ftp.uk.debian.org/debian/

Setting up a dchroot (non-root) environment

dchroot makes it possible to use your newly-built chroot even as a non-root user. Hence, you can configure your chroot environment in such a way that you can even use your existing /home as the chroot's /home, thereby saving you some expensive moving in between homes, as well as making package building/testing a LOT more convenient.

即使普通用户也可以用dchroot来使用新建立的chroot环境。你甚至可以把你现在的/home目录设为chroot里的/home目录,令home目录间的转换、以及创建与测试软件包更加便利。

To do this, first fix the user and root password:

修改用户和根用户密码

sudo cp /etc/passwd /var/chroot/etc/
sudo sed 's/\([<sup>:]*\):[</sup>:]*:/\1:*:/' /etc/shadow | sudo tee /var/chroot/etc/shadow
sudo cp /etc/group /var/chroot/etc/
sudo cp /etc/hosts /var/chroot/etc/ # avoid sudo warnings when it tries to resolve the chroot's hostname

Then enable sudo and setup your passwords for root and the first sudo user in the `admin` group:

为了能sudo和在admin组中第一个sudo用户和根用户设置密码

sudo cp /etc/sudoers /var/chroot/etc/
sudo chroot /var/chroot/
dpkg-reconfigure passwd
passwd <your first ubuntu user in the admin group>

Next, install the sudo package to be able to use it being in chroot:

FIXME 翻译以上部分

apt-get install sudo
exit

Finish things up:

最后:

sudo editor /etc/fstab

Add these lines: (/media/cdrom is optional, of course, and you might have to create the dir in the chroot)

添加下列行:(/media/cdrom当然是可选项) FIXME 补完此处的翻译

/home /var/chroot/home none bind 0 0
/tmp /var/chroot/tmp none bind 0 0
/media/cdrom /var/chroot/media/cdrom none bind 0 0
/dev /var/chroot/dev none bind 0 0 
proc-chroot /var/chroot/proc proc defaults 0 0
devpts-chroot /var/chroot/dev/pts devpts defaults 0 0

Mount them:

挂载它们:

sudo mount -a

The default bash path includes chroot information. To make this visible:

缺省Bash目录包含了Chroot信息,为了使之可见:

sudo chroot /var/chroot/
echo mychroot > etc/debian_chroot
exit

Now when you want to use your chroot (you may omit the -c mychroot if there's only one, or you just want the first one in the file). The -d parameter means that your environment will be preserved, this is generally useful if you want chrooted applications to seamlessly use your X server, your session manager, etc.

现在当你想使用你的Chroot环境时(你可以忽略-c mychroot参数,如果你只有一个或只想使用文件中的第一个时)。-d参数意味着你的环境将被保留,当你想你的Chroot环境中的应用程序想无缝地使用你的X服务器、会话管理器时,这通常是有用的。

dchroot -c mychroot -d

FIXME 翻译以下部分

Tada! Now you can switch to and from your main / and /var/chroot/, without even becoming root!


Shortcuts / Usage

you can type dchroot -d "command" and it executes that command in the chroot.

I have this script do_chroot in /usr/local/bin:

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/dchroot -d "`echo $0 | sed 's|^.*/||'` $*"

Then I create a symbolic link from that to the command I want to execute in the chroot, e.g.:

ln -s /usr/local/bin/do_chroot /usr/local/bin/firefox

which will execute firefox in the chroot environment when I launch it in my normal 64 bit environment. To launch my amd64 firefox I can type /usr/bin/firefox.

Instead if you want you can just create a script for launching the 32bit firefox e.g.:

#!/bin/bash
dchroot -d "firefox"

put it in /usr/local/bin and add it to the gnome menu.

If you're going to start a program that only works in 32bit, first type dchroot -d and you'll be in the 32 bit environment.

Notes

From unknown Sun Apr 17 05:43:14 +0100 2005 From: Date: Sun, 17 Apr 2005 05:43:14 +0100 Subject: Using symlinks for passwd, groups, shadow, etc..? Message-ID: <[email protected]https://www.ubuntulinux.org>

Wouldn't it be possible to use symlinks for the files that get copied into the chroot? Like /etc/hosts? Would it work with /etc/passwd and the like?

From MichaelShigorin Sun Apr 17 13:42:38 +0100 2005 From: Michael Shigorin Date: Sun, 17 Apr 2005 13:42:38 +0100 Subject: nope Message-ID: <[email protected]https://www.ubuntulinux.org>

...but you can mount --bind them one be one. :)

From goofrider Thu May 12 19:26:45 +0100 2005 From: goofrider Date: Thu, 12 May 2005 19:26:45 +0100 Subject: chroot and symlinks Message-ID: <[email protected]https://www.ubuntulinux.org>

You can't symlinks from inside the chroot to somewhere outside of it, because once you chroot into it, the new chroot will becomes `/`, and all symlinks will be resolved relative to this new `/`. Use `mount --bind` instead (though hard links should work too). --GoofRider 2005-05-12

From Sam Fri May 13 09:22:44 +0100 2005 From: Sam Date: Fri, 13 May 2005 09:22:44 +0100 Subject: mount -a Message-ID: <[email protected]>

You can use $ sudo mount -a for mounting all the entries in fstab instead of mounting them one by one.

From LukaszStelmach Sun May 15 00:06:59 +0100 2005 From: Lukasz Stelmach Date: Sun, 15 May 2005 00:06:59 +0100 Subject: Using symlinks Message-ID: <[email protected]>

You can make hardlink to files (but only when your chroot dir is on te same partition):

ln /etc/passwd /var/chroot/etc/

From: Elmo, 21.12.05 Does anyone know howto enable DRI from inside a 32bit chroot, 'cause if I mount --bind /dev/dri chroot/dev/dri I get the following error: "DDX driver parameter mismatch: got 848 bytes, but expected 840 bytes. libGL error: InitDriver failed" (glxinfo) I'd really like to get doom3 working on my amd64 install.

26.12.05, Elmo: I know, it should work natively, but I have problems with other games aswell, so getting dri working from a chroot would be great=)

26.12.05, Elmo: At debian-amd64 list(http://lists.debian.org/debian-amd64/2005/02/msg00807.html), around February 05, is said that it's not possible at the moment. Got to find another way around my problem, will propably post to ubuntu forums.


10.06.06 Just a note from a person who ruined his system: After all this is done do not go and delete things from /var/chroot willy-nilly as it will delete the files from the linked directory as well. I found this out only after my entire /home directory was wiped out when I tried to free up some disk space by deleting the files from the chroot directory. Thanks to my foolishness I emptied root's trash before I realized what I'd done. It's been a while since my last backup so I lost everything from Documents, etc for the last year or so.