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Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)
Ubuntu Hardy Heron, 发布于2008年4月24日，是 Gutsy Gibbon 的延续. 请帮助测试和完善本指南.
本指南是由 Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) 开始编写。
- 1 Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)
- 1.1 前言
- 1.2 有用的知识
- 1.3 保持系统不断更新
- 1.4 安装包 (程序) 和 库
- 1.5 查找软件包/程序
- 1.6 增加程序到应用程序菜单
- 1.7 显卡和显示
- 1.8 无线网卡
- 1.9 How to Backup Your Ubuntu Desktop
- 1.10 How to install multimedia support on Hardy Heron
- 1.11 Revision
- 1.11.1 Pulseaudio
- 1.11.2 Installing VLC Media Player
- 1.11.3 Installing Amarok (a Music Player)
- 1.11.4 Installing Exaile (Amarok-like Music Player)
- 1.11.5 Installing Pulseaudio Tools
- 1.11.6 Installing XMMS
- 1.11.7 Installing Real Player 11 and Configuring Mozilla Plugin
- 1.12 Systems and Network Monitoring
- 1.13 Internet and Web Development
- 1.14 Remote Desktop
- 1.15 Howto: Tweak and maximize your bandwidth in Ubuntu/Linux via sysctl!
- 1.16 Home Automation / Home Theater / Home Security
- 1.16.1 Complete Systems
- 1.16.2 PVR (Personal Video Recorder)
- 1.16.3 Home Security
- 1.16.4 TFTP server Setup in Ubuntu
- 1.17 How to restore GRUB to a partition or MBR with an Ubuntu Live CD
- 1.18 Encrypt home partition with cryptsetup & LUKS
- 1.19 Aliases
- 1.20 Tips & Tricks
- 1.21 How to make partitions
- 1.22 How to enable Compiz Fusion in Ubuntu
- 1.23 Add-on Applications
- 1.23.1 Ultamatix: Install 101 Applications in One click including Games,codecs,applications
- 1.23.2 Wine
- 1.23.3 Unison - file synchronization tool
- 1.23.4 PlayOnLinux
- 1.23.5 Tor, privoxy, and Tor GUI (Vidalia)
- 1.23.6 How to Sync your emails, files, bookmarks, and any other type of personal information
- 1.23.7 How to install applications for study of religious texts
- 1.23.8 How to install Google Gadgets in Ubuntu Hardy
- 1.23.9 Playing N64 with the emulator Mupen64Plus for Linux
- 1.23.10 Watching Live-TV On Your Ubuntu Desktop With Zattoo
- 1.24 How to upgrade from Hardy Heron to Intrepid Ibex (for developers and bug reports only)
- Ubuntu 8.04 发布于2008年4月24日 。
- 名字叫做 Hardy Heron ，是 Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 的延续版本 。
- * Hardy Heron 是一个 LTS (长期支持) 版本 ， 将提供服务器版本五年和桌面版本三年的安全升级支持。
- Ubuntu 使用6个月的发布周期
- 下一个发行版计划于2008年10月30日，命名为 Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex)。
关于 Ubuntu 和官方的 Ubuntu 衍生版
Ubuntu 8.04 指南和链接
- Ubuntu 官方站点
- Ubuntu 官方论坛
- 维基百科 Ubuntu (Linux 发行版)
- Ubuntu Geek 包括了 技巧,指南,和关于Ubuntu的教程和文章
- Ubuntu 中文官方站点
- Ubuntu 中文官方论坛
- Ubuntu 中文官方知识库
使用 控制台 / 终端 / shell
控制台, 终端, 和 shell 意味着同样一件事 - 一个命令行界面. 他可以用来控制系统从而代理图形用户界面 (GUI)。 这个指南本的大部分任务都可以使用GUI来完成, 但对于大多数用户而言使用命令行更加简单。
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端
任何一个使用 'sudo' 作为前缀的命令都需要拥有管理员 (或 root) 访问权限。 所以你会被提示输入你自己的密码。
使用 manpages 显示命令行的参数和帮助
将显示 apt-get 命令的选项。
Windows 和 Ubuntu 双启动
您可能遇到遇到 Ubuntu 和 基于 Windows Vista 新引导程序的双启动问题。 Wubi (基于 Windows 的 Ubuntu 安装程序) 是一个正式支持双启动的安装程序。 如果你使用 Wubi 有任何问题， EasyBCD 是一个免费的 Windows 程序，可以快速和安全的完成 Windows Vista 和 Ubuntu (或其它发行版)的双启动.
系统 --> 系统管理 --> 软件源
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
- 升级到一个新的版本需要谨慎行事。 确保你没有使用一个特定 Ubuntu 版本的功能。 一些应用程序并不兼容新版本，当你做了发行版升级后，可能会停止工作。
安装包 (程序) 和 库
如果使用 Apt 安装包 (从命令行终端)
- Apt 是 Debian 包管理器，同样也在 Ubuntu 下使用良好。
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端
sudo apt-get install package
- 安装音乐播放器 Amarok, 例如:
sudo apt-get install amarok
sudo apt-get remove package
- 删除 Exaile 音乐播放器, 例如:
sudo apt-get remove exaile
- 当在安装或者删除时， Apt 将自动检查程序的依赖关系。
系统 --> 系统管理 --> 新立得软件包管理器
- 点击包前面的方块来安装它; 它将被加入到安装队列中。
- 点击 "应用"。 新立得将计算选择包的依赖关系，将其一并安装到系统。
系统 --> 系统管理 --> 新立得软件包管理器
- 参考 如何去选择一个最快的镜像.
- 浏览 the Ubuntu 软件包页面.
- 搜索 Hardy 软件包:
使用 Apt 查找软件包
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端
sudo apt-cache search <package-name>
sudo apt-cache search music player
在 Aptitude 搜索软件包
- Aptitude 是带有菜单版本的 apt. 它来源于命令行终端。
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端 user> aptitude
- 在菜单栏上点击右键 编辑菜单.
安装 ATI 和 nVidia 显卡驱动
[email protected]:~$ uname -a Linux ubuntu804server 2.6.24-17-server #1 SMP Thu May 1 14:28:06 UTC 2008 x86_64 GNU/Linux
- 我有一个 server 内核, 因此我需要安装下面的:
sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-server
- 点击 系统 > 系统管理 > 硬件驱动 并打开驱动.
- 有些用户可能得到如下错误信息: "软件包 nvidia-glx-new 没有发现." 可以使如下修复，到 系统 > 系统管理 > 软件源 在可从互联网下载的下面够选所有的选项, 点击关闭将重新更新包列表. NVidia 驱动可以使用上面的办法可用。
- 您可以选择启动时不显示 NVidia 标志:
sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo
安装 EnvyNG 驱动 (ATI & nVidia)
- 阅读 这个指南.
- 安装 gtk 软件包:
sudo apt-get install envyng-gtk
安装驱动从软件仓库 (ATI & nVidia)
系统 > 系统管理 > 硬件驱动
开源的 rRadeon 驱动 (ATI)
- 针对于那些老的 ATi GPU
- 参考 这些指示.
RadeonHD 驱动 (ATI only)
- 对于那些最新的 ATi 显卡 (2xxx 和 3xxx) 并且使用最新的ATi驱动无法显示 (通过 EnvyNG) 或者软件仓库带的驱动.
- 确保您没有安装其它的 ATI 驱动.
- 也可以阅读这里 更多信息.
修复在 Compiz-Fusion 下视频回放的问题
问题: 当在 Compiz-Fusion 下全屏时, 一个蓝色的屏幕代替了特效。
解决方案: 尝试 这个修复.
注意：此修补程序不是一个永久性的修复。它使用您的CPU渲染视频，而不是您的显卡。当在高分辨率下改变大小时，视频将显示像素，因为 CPU是无法后处理的视频（优化您的系统资源） 。似乎目前无法修复此视频播放问题，这是一个X服务器端的驱动程序问题。
配置 nVidia 显卡的多个显示器
安装 nVidia 显卡控制面板:
sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings
您可以配置您的所有显示器，设置单独的刷新率，并改变相对于其它的定位。当您完成时，请务必按一下'储存到X配置文件' 。某些显示器可能有问题; 注销再重新登录来解决这个问题。
大多数的无线设备都工作正常。 可以点击 系统 -> 系统管理 -> 网络工具 来配置它们。
Atheros 5007EG with madwifi on i386 platform
For those, who have an Atheros 5007EG chipset and can’t get it working with ndiswrapper.This guide only works on i386 platforms, so if you’re running an x64 linux, then you’ve to try again with ndiswrapper or wait for a new solution from atheros and madwifi.
Atheros AR5007 wireless with madwifi on Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy heron)
If you have Atheros AR5007 wireless network adapter follow this procedure to make it work in ubuntu 8.04
The driver for the atheros ar242x wireless adapters seems to come out of the box as it is installed as a proprietary driver (see System -> Administration -> Hardware Drivers). You may notice however that no wireless device is found by your network tool (System -> Administration -> Network). The following post below might fix your issue without having to install ndiswrapper for support of windows drivers.
Note: the downside of this approach is that you will have to recompile the driver with every new kernel update.
Intel Corporation PRO/Wireless 2915ABG Network
Though this support is pre-built in ubuntu hardy...but on some laptops such as Acer Travelmate C200, the wireless press button doesn't blink and the user has no indication of device as working.A very simple solution is as follows:
sudo cat > ipw2200.modprobe << "EOF" options ipw2200 led=1 EOF
sudo mv ipw2200.modprobe /etc/modprobe.d/
Run "lsmod |grep ipw2200" to check if ipw2200 module is loaded....Restart System and enjoy!
How to Backup Your Ubuntu Desktop
Pybackpack - A user friendly file backup tool for Ubuntu Linux Desktop
A graphical tool to make file backup simpler. Provides a user-friendly interface which allows you to back up your files easily to an archive, to a CD/DVD or to a remote location using SSH.
Installation guide including screenshots check here
How to install multimedia support on Hardy Heron
sudo apt-get update
To be upgraded. Please check that you have all repositories enabled in System > Administration > Software sources.
Then run this command:
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
Now you have the most of the codecs needed to play most of the multimedia you may own.
Installing DVD Support
If you want to install codecs in i386 and 64 bit check This
If you want a script to automate this for you, go here.
At the console, type:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Αnd paste in the end of the file the below:
## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 8.04 "hardy" ## Please report any bug on https://bugs.launchpad.net/medibuntu/ deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ hardy free non-free
save the document and then in the terminal type:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
in order to receive the appropriate key.
Finally, at the terminal, type:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2
I used this method and DVD movies wouldn't play previews or allow me to go to the Main Menu. English DVD's would also play French or Spanish language when set to Auto in Language.
I used this forum page to get my DVD working and it works great! Not just for xubuntu.
This has also been completely automated for all versions of Ubuntu here: http://www.hildoersystems.com/index.php/home/62.
I just set up a fresh box, here's what worked well to take care of dvd/cd playback. Run in order
sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/hardy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring && sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vlc libdvdcss2 ubuntu-restricted-extras w32codecs
To add the better totem-xine player as default totem player
sudo apt-get install totem-xine
sudo update-alternatives --config totem
edit : the libdvdread3/install-css.sh thing is somewhat outdated, much better to get your libs, codecs and players from medibuntu. In the rare case the current libdvdcss2 doesn't work for your system then that's an option
On Xubuntu, you may experience some glitches with Pulseaudio like no sound at all after upgrading from Gutsy. The reason may be that the Pulseaudio daemon is not started. Take note that the sound server is not started at boot time (to reduce the risk of inter-user audio corruption), but at login time. So, you will have to add an entry to your autostarted applications for Pulseaudio. Here is an example:
Installing VLC Media Player
At the console, type:
sudo apt-get install vlc
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove vlc
If you encounter sound problems (due to PulseAudio ), type:
sudo apt-get install vlc-plugin-pulse
and choose PulseAudio as output in VLC options.
How to make VLC open when you insert a DVD
Some users may run into problems using Totem to play DVDs. Totem is the default program for DVD-playback in Hardy, and there is no obvious way to change it. A lot of tips that worked in previous versions no longer work. The main problem is that VLC does not register itself as a DVD-capable application. These steps will set VLC media player as your default DVD player.
Create a new directory, if it doesn't already exist, for our custom settings. At the console, type:
Copy the standard VLC settings file. Type:
cp /usr/share/applications/vlc.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/vlc-dvd.desktop
Edit vlc-dvd.desktop. Type:
Scroll down, and find the line that reads:
Replace the above line with one of the following:
- 1. (all you really need)
- 2. (recommended settings from ubuntuforums for better dvd playback)
Exec=vlc --vout-filter deinterlace --deinterlace-mode blend --volume 512 %f
- 3. (recommended settings from ubuntuforums for better dvd playback and automatic full screen playback)
Exec=vlc --vout-filter deinterlace --deinterlace-mode blend --volume 512 --fullscreen %f
Save the file and close gedit, then open mimeapps.list. At the console, type:
In most cases this will be a new (blank) file, and all you will need to do is paste in the following text. If mimeapps.list already exists, scroll down until you find the line that begins with «x-content/video-dvd» under the [Added Associations] heading, and change it to match the following text (or paste in the entire line if you couldn't find it).
[Added Associations] x-content/video-dvd=vlc-dvd.desktop;totem.desktop;
Save the file and close gedit. To check that the settings have properly applied, from the Gnome menus go to Places → Home Folder, then from the file manager menus go to Edit → Preferences → Media, and «DVD Video» should be set to «Open VLC media player» (you should be able to choose between Totem/Move Player and VLC)
Installing Amarok (a Music Player)
Whilst Amarok is a KDE/Qt application, it will work fine on Ubuntu, and can be installed by typing:
sudo apt-get install amarok
Installing Exaile (Amarok-like Music Player)
Exaile is a GTK, Amarok-like Music Player. From the command-line terminal:
sudo apt-get install exaile
Make sure you have the appropriate multimedia codecs installed.
Installing Pulseaudio Tools
This will install pulseaudio utilities such as individual application volume controls and audio server tools.
Open a Terminal window and type the following:
sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins "pulseaudio-*" paman padevchooser paprefs pavucontrol pavumeter libflashsupport
Run Pulseaudio Device Manager from the Applications > Sound and Video menu to access the tools.
Note: XMMS is no longer included in the package tree and must be installed from source. This guide is based on <http://blog.sartek.net/2008/04/install-xmms-on-ubuntu-804-hardy-heron.html>.
Be extra carefull. The installation of a package out of PMS (package management system, that means apt and its frontend, Synaptic) may be dangerous, since the system doesn't have a trace of the binaries that are installed after the compilation.
Be sure that you know very well what you do.
Instead of that you should consider of making a .deb package so that you may do an appropriate installation'
XMMS depends on a lot of packages; install them by typing the following into a terminal:
sudo apt-get install autotools-dev automake1.9 libtool gettext libasound2-dev libaudiofile-dev libgl1-mesa-dev libglib1.2-dev libgtk1.2-dev libesd0-dev libice-dev libmikmod2-dev libogg-dev libsm-dev libvorbis-dev libxxf86vm-dev libxml-dev libssl-dev build-essential make
Download the source from the XMMS website and unpack the .tar.gz:
From a terminal move to the newly untarred director and type:
Compile the code:
sudo make install
You can remove the untarred directory if you so desire. To make audio output work properly, you may have to change the output audio plugin to ALSA from the OSS driver. This is done by opening xmms and navigating through the Options-Preferences menus.
Installing Real Player 11 and Configuring Mozilla Plugin
The following steps show how to install Real Player 11 and Mozilla Plugin for Firefox 3.0 browsers running on Hardy Heron.
Download Real Player 11 from:
Open a terminal and change to the directory where the file was downloaded. Grant execute permissions and run the setup using the following commands:
chmod 770 RealPlayer11GOLD.bin sudo ./RealPlayer11GOLD.bin
Use the following default installation directory during the installation:
The installer will copy the files and create menu shortcuts. Then run the following commands.
cd /usr/lib/firefox-addons/plugins sudo ln -s /opt/real/RealPlayer/mozilla/nphelix.xpt nphelix.xpt sudo ln -s /opt/real/RealPlayer/mozilla/nphelix.so nphelix.so sudo mv /usr/lib/totem/gstreamer/libtotem-complex-plugin.so ~/.
Open Firefox and type about:plugins in the address bar. Scroll down and look for the following entry.
Helix DNA Plugin: RealPlayer G2 Plug-In Compatible File name: /opt/real/RealPlayer/mozilla/nphelix.so Helix DNA Plugin: RealPlayer G2 Plug-In Compatible version 0.4.0.4005 built with gcc 3.4.3 on Feb 25 2008
If found, your Real Plugin is installed properly!
Systems and Network Monitoring
Install the Zenoss stack
Zenoss is a full-featured open source networking monitoring application. To install a version of Zenoss which includes all dependencies, first add the repository by typing:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Αnd paste in the end of the file:
## Zenoss - Ubuntu ## Please report any bugs at http://dev.zenoss.org/trac deb http://dev.zenoss.org/deb main stable
Save the file and exit.
In order to receive the key, type:
wget -q http://dev.zenoss.org/deb/zenoss-gpg.key -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install zenoss-stack
sudo /etc/init.d/zenoss-stack start
Internet and Web Development
There are various ways to access your Ubuntu desktop remotely, each of the methods has their tradeoffs and has to be chosen according to your needs.
Howto Install and use Xming for Windows
The application Xming can be used to implement a remote desktop for Ubuntu on a Windows machine. The install procedure below describes the use of the XDMP interface of the X server with Xming running on Windows XP.
- Download the Xming application and Fonts install package from SourceForge.net
- First Install the Xming application, then its Fonts.
- Next you have to make sure your Windows Firewall does not block the connection to your Linux machine. Go to the "Exceptions" tab in your Firewall Settings and add the following Port configurations:
Name: Any name Port number: 16001 TCP -> Sellected
Name: Any name Port number: 6000 TCP -> Selected
Name: Any name Port number: 177 UDP -> Selected
- Go to your Ubuntu machine and enable your remote desktop: (Gnome)
System->Remote Desktop "Allow other users to view your desktop" -> Selected "Allow other users to control your desktop" -> Selected
Select your Security setting according to your choice in this tab.
- To make sure your Linux box does not block your XDMP communications via TCP:
On your Linux box (Gnome) go to System->Administration->Login Window->Security. Make sure the "Deny TCP connections to Xserver" is unselected.
- Go to your Windows machine to the folder where you installed Xming and click on XLaunch.exe
- Select any of the options except "Multiple Windows", click on "Next".
- Select Open session via XDMCP, "Next".
- Select Connect to host. Type in your Linux machine name or IP address, "Next".
- Enable Clipboard.
- Save the configuration & click Finish.
Now you should get a login window from Ubuntu.
There might be a potential issue that your mouse's wheel does not work properly on your remote desktop. To fix this go to your linux machine and edit the file: /etc/X11/xorg.conf. At Section "InputDevice", Identifier "Configured Mouse" add the following lines: (This is for a normal PS2 two button one scroll wheel mouse)
Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" Option "Buttons" "3"
Waring: Make sure you do this correctly or it will screw up you X Server settings
Between the Option and parameters use a <Tab> character.
- Restart you Ubuntu machine for the changes to take effect.
Howto: Tweak and maximize your bandwidth in Ubuntu/Linux via sysctl!
Here I will unleash a few hidden settings that should improve your internet speed, and work with all current linux operating systems including Ubuntu:
1. Open a Terminal via Applications->Accessories->Terminal
sudo vim /etc/sysctl.conf (press i for edit mode)
Then Paste the Following at the end of the file:
## increase TCP max buffer size setable using setsockopt() net.core.rmem_max = 16777216 net.core.wmem_max = 16777216 ## increase Linux autotuning TCP buffer limits ## min, default, and max number of bytes to use ## set max to at least 4MB, or higher if you use very high BDP paths net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 16777216 net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 65536 16777216 ## don't cache ssthresh from previous connection net.ipv4.tcp_no_metrics_save = 1 net.ipv4.tcp_moderate_rcvbuf = 1 ## recommended to increase this for 1000 BT or higher net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 2500 ## for 10 GigE, use this, uncomment below ## net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 30000 ## Turn off timestamps if you're on a gigabit or very busy network ## Having it off is one less thing the IP stack needs to work on ## net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0 ## disable tcp selective acknowledgements. net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 0 ##enable window scaling net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
Type :wq to exit and save.
Type in terminal
sudo sysctl -p
to apply the settings.
You can disable all these settings by removing these lines you added via:
sudo gedit /etc/sysctl.conf
Install a LAMP server on a Desktop
LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MSQL and PHP. You can install an integrated package that includes all four from the Synaptic Package manager (if you are using a Desktop Edition).
System-->Administration-->Synaptic Package Manager--> Edit-->Mark Packages by Task-->LAMP server -->Apply
Simple LAMP server Setup
In around 15 minutes, the time it takes to install Ubuntu Server Edition, you can have a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) server up and ready to go. This feature, exclusive to Ubuntu Server Edition, is available at the time of installation.
Check LAMP Server Setup in 15min Very easy setup guide
Install a LAMP server for local web development
This will install Apache2, PHP5, MySql5, and PHPMyAdmin.
Firstly, type the following command at the console:
This will retrieve new lists of packages.
sudo apt-get install apache2 php5 mysql-server-5.0 phpmyadmin
This will install all the necessary applications. You may be prompted to decide on a MySQL root password (set one if you want), and to configure PHPMyAdmin (select apache2 as the server type). After this is complete, we need to perform some minor configuration to get PHPMyAdmin working. Type:
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
Scroll right to the bottom of the file that opens, and add:
# Enable PHPMyAdmin Include /etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf
Now save, exit, and type:
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
Everything should now be configured - go to http://127.0.0.1 for webpages, and http://127.0.0.1/phpmyadmin for database administration. The webroot is located in /var/www/ by default. This is not particularly useful, as we do not have write access to this directory. Fortunately, this is easy to solve, by...
Adding a virtual host to your LAMP server
This allows us to access a different folder as our webroot from a different address in our browser - face it, 'localhost' or 127.0.0.1 is boring.
Start by adding a new host. This is easy to do via System --> Administration --> Network; click on the Hosts tab, select the localhost item from the list and click properties. You may need to click the 'Unlock' button and enter your password first. Underneath the entry 'localhost', on a new line, add your entry of choice; for example, we'll use 'testhost'. Add this, and close all the dialogs.
To confirm that the above worked, you can check the '/etc/hosts' file.
sudo gedit /etc/hosts
You should see the following line.
Now we need to edit the Apache configuration file, so type into the console:
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/httpd.conf
In the resulting file (which may well be empty), add the definition for your host! My username is 'dan', and I want my webpages to be served from a directory named 'www' in my home, so I would add:
<VirtualHost *> ServerName testhost DocumentRoot /home/dan/www </Virtualhost>
where testhost is the name of the new virtual site (it must match the above entry in your conf file).
After this, you need to restart apache so it can load these new configuration file entries.
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
I can now add files to /home/dan/www, and access them by visiting http://testhost
Fire up terminal and type the followings:
cd /etc/apache2/sites-available sudo touch your-site-name.conf sudo nano your-site-name.conf
Type in your Virtual Host directives, example:
<VirtualHost 127.0.1.1:80> ServerName myserver ServerAdmin [email protected] DocumentRoot /home/me/webroot/default <Directory /home/me/webroot/default> Options -Indexes AllowOverride All Order Allow,Deny Allow From All </Directory> </VirtualHost>
Save the new file and type in the followings:
cd ../sites-enabled ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/your-site-name.conf ./your-site-name.conf cd ../ sudo nano apache2.conf
Go to the end of the apache2.conf file and add the following line just before the comment listed below:
# Include the virtual host configurations: NameVirtualHost 127.0.1.1:80 Include /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/
Save the edited file and type the following:
sudo nano /etc/hosts
Edit the entry after 127.0.1.1 to match your configuration, example:
127.0.0.1 localhost 127.0.1.1 zozi myserver
Last but not least, save the edited file and restart the daemon by doing this:
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
Your new virtual host will be accessible at the address http://myserver/.
Home Automation / Home Theater / Home Security
Linux MCE (Media Center Edition)
LinuxMCE is an integrated home theater/home security/home automation/telephone PBX/intercom system for your home. It is a community project that is a fork of the Linux Pluto commercial endeavour. There is a version that runs on Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty) and a version for Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). A version for Kubuntu 8.04 (Hardy) is due out soon. It is available in 32 and 64 bit versions. LinuxMCE can run either as a standalone Home Theater PC or can co-ordinate a fully networked home, using the networking capabilities that are intrinsically part of the Kubuntu Linux OS. For more info see the LinuxMCE website.
LinuxMCE can be installed at the same time as the Kubuntu OS, on a new PC with an Nvidia graphics card (6000, 7000, or 8000 series), from a single DVD.
LinuxMCE can also be installed as an add-on package to an existing Kubuntu system, using the LinuxMCE 2 CD installation. You will need a Kubuntu LiveCD for your installation, even if you already have a full Kubuntu installation in place. (The LinuxMCE installation uses the Kubuntu LiveCD for additional modules.) Note that the LinuxMCE version must match the Kubuntu version -- i.e. the LinuxMCE 710 version CDs require the Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy) Live CD.
With the 2 CD installation, it is possible to run Kubuntu separately from LinuxMCE on the same PC, but it is recommended to dedicate at least one PC to LinuxMCE as a Core server.
LinuxMCE incorporates MythTV, Pluto home automation, Motion security surveillance, Asterisk PBX, VDR video disk recorder, and other home automation/security/theater packages in an integrated platform.
At this time, the automatic installer for Linux MCE uses the KDE desktop (Kubuntu). There are users that have made Linux MCE work with the Gnome desktop (Ubuntu) and other Linux distributions, but it is recommended to stick with the Kubuntu OS, as required by the LinuxMCE automatic installation.
PVR (Personal Video Recorder)
Mythbuntu is an Ubuntu-based derivative (based on the Xubuntu (XFCE) desktop) that is meant to function as a standalone PVR, based on MythTV. It can be used, however, with a Gnome (Ubuntu), KDE (Kubuntu) or XFCE (Xubuntu) desktop, which can be added at any later time.
- Start Synaptic Package Manager.
System-->Administration-->Synaptic Package Manager
- Choose to install the Mythbuntu LiveCD package, or a combination of the Mythbuntu frontend, master backend, slave backend, and/or additional roles. See the website for details.
Synaptic Package Manager-->Mark Packages by Task...
Remote control configuraion - Lircd
In Mythbuntu Control Centre use the following:
- Remote: Custom ( or use one from the list if you happen to have it )
- Driver: [blank] ( most of the time if the right module is loaded )
- Modules: lirc_dev lirc_i2c lirc_igorplugusb ( in the case of diy custom receiver igorplugusb otherwise use module acordingly)
- Configuration: myremote.conf
- use irrecord to generate a .conf file for a custom remote, almost any remote should work
dmesg # to check that receiver registered corectly in the kernel sudo mode2 -d /dev/lirc0 # to check that receiver is functioning, try different usb ports if not working irw /dev/lircd # to check that lircd receives the correct remote messages
Warning: Make sure ~/.mythtv/lircdrc uses remote = YourRemoteName, same name used in myremote.conf
sudo /etc/init.d/lirc restart # restart lircd daemon
Zoneminder surveillance system
Zoneminder manages surveillance cameras and stores images on the hard disk. Images can be viewed using a (LAMP) server remotely. X10 devices can be triggered using built-in perl scripts. For more info see the Zoneminder website.
- Read #General Notes
- Read #Install a LAMP server on a Desktop
- Install ffmpeg from Synaptic Package Manager, or from the command-line terminal:
apt-get install ffmpeg
Installing the latest Zoneminder version
- Minor tweaks are required to install the latest version (1.23.3) of Zoneminder on Hardy. See the Zoneminder forums here or a note on installing from source here.
Using the repository package
- There is a Zoneminder (version 1.22.3) package for Hardy (that was also the package from Gutsy) in the repositories. You should be able to install the package from Synaptic Package Manager. It is available in 32-bit and 64-bit versions.
- Detailed instructions that appeared to work for Gutsy are at the Zoneminder Installation Wiki.
Original Feisty installation instructions
- However, if that does not work, try the original instructions that worked for Feisty:
- You must have the LAMP server installed. In addition, you may need additional modules if they are not satisfied by the package dependencies:
sudo apt-get install libarchive-tar-perl libarchive-zip-perl libdate-manip-perl libdevice-serialport-perl sudo apt-get install libjpeg62 libmime-perl libstdc++6 libunwind7 libwww-perl zlib1g
- Download the .deb package from the package manager's website:
- Install using the Debian package manager. (No other method seems to work.)
dpkg -i zoneminder_1.22.3-8_i386.deb
- (Note: If some dependencies are still unsatisfied, make sure you have these packages installed):
sudo apt-get install libc6 libc6.1 libgcc1 libgcc4 libstdc++6
- (These should already be installed as part of the LAMP installation):
sudo apt-get install apache2-mpm-prefork libapache2-mod-php5 libmysqlclient15off mysql-client mysql-server php5 php5-mysql
Setup Zoneminder configuration
If your installation is successful, you will now need to set up the configuration files and databases for Zoneminder.
- Copy the configuration file and restart the Apache2 server.
sudo ln -s /etc/zm/apache.conf /etc/apache2/conf.d/zoneminder.conf sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload
- View Zoneminder from your web browser:
- Set up a MySQL database for Zoneminder
- Note: In Hardy, the next two steps are accomplished during a LAMP server installation or during MySQL installation.
- If this is the first time you have used MySQL, the default global MySQL superuser root will not have a password. You should set one now. Instructions for setting mySQL initial privileges are here.
- In short:
mysql -u root mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('your_new_password') WHERE User='root'; mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; mysql> quit
- In addition, you can set up an additional global MySQL user (such as mysql_user, for example) by following the instructions here. That way you can reserve root login for emergencies.
- In short:
mysql -u root mysql> CREATE USER 'mysql_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'mysql_user_passwd'; mysql> quit
- Now you must create a MySQL database for use by Zoneminder. This is an administrative MySQL command, so you must use one of your global MySQL users (either root or mysql_user, as created in the example above). You can name your Zoneminder database anything you want, instead of zmdatabase.
mysqladmin -u root -p CREATE zmdatabase
mysqladmin -u mysql_user -p CREATE zmdatabase
- Create users for the Zoneminder database. As always, I create a root user for emergency use. I use the same password for root as I do elsewhere on my system. Then I also create a user named zm_user (but you could also creat a user named mysql_user, to keep everything consistent). [I use a unique user here because this is a home security system, after all, and I don't want it breached.] These users are specific to this database; they can be the same users as used elsewhere in the system or can be unique users.
mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES ON zmdatabase.* TO 'zm_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES ON zmdatabase.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; (I used my usual root password here). mysql> quit mysqladmin reload
- Note: mysql commands (i.e. any entered at the mysql> prompt) must end with a semicolon. If you forget the semicolon, nothing will happen.
MythZoneminder allows you to view your security cameras through Myth TV, essentially. It is a plugin that interfaces the two packages Zoneminder (which must be working on your system) and Myth TV (which must also be working.) It can be found in Synpatic Package Manager as the mythzoneminder package.
See the installation instructions.
TFTP server Setup in Ubuntu
Advanced TFTP server. Multithreaded TFTP server implementing all options specified in RFCs 1350, 2090, 2347, 2348, 2349 (multicast not implemented yet). The server currently supports being started from inetd(8) only. The server then handles new connections directly by starting new threads and kills itself after 5 minutes of inactivity.
Check aTFTP Server Setup in Ubuntu Very easy setup guide
How to restore GRUB to a partition or MBR with an Ubuntu Live CD
Sometimes, if an Ubuntu installation goes wrong, or a Windows NT bootloader overwrites MBR and doesn't recognise the Linux installation, we have to restore our GRUB bootloader that is, generally, very flexible.
First of all, we burn a Hardy Heron (Ubuntu 8.04) ISO (on a CD(R , RW) or DVD (+R , +RW)) or make sure that we have one already.
Then, we change, in the BIOS, the boot load sequence and we put the CD/DVD option first.
After that, we boot the Live CD, we choose the first option and in a few minutes we have arrived at the Live CD Desktop.
So, we go :
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端
Then, we have to remember which is our Ubuntu installation partition.
In our example, it is the second one (/dev/sda2), formatted as ext3, in the first HDD of a SATA controller. We suppose that it is the second one, since, in case we have Windows that demand to be in the first partition (/dev/sda1), this one is occupied.
Now, you have to be really careful. You have to enter the right partition, instead of sda2 (unless it is the same) In the terminal :
cd / sudo -s -H
mount -t ext3 /dev/sda2 /mnt
mount -t proc proc /mnt/proc
mount -t sysfs sys /mnt/sys
mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
chroot /mnt /bin/bash
And now, you are actually "running" Ubuntu within the Hard Drive but through Live CD's terminal.
Now we restore GRUB like that:
1) Restoration to MBR
2) Restoration to partition (example: /dev/sda2)
In the first case (that is the most usual) you have certainly installed GRUB on MBR after you receive, in the terminal, the message that there are no errors.
After you reboot, you have your favorite bootloader restored.
Alternatively, mount the / and /boot folders you want to boot into and just pass the --root-directory argument into grub-install, there is no need to chroot anymore.
Encrypt home partition with cryptsetup & LUKS
First step is to backup all necessary data, if something goes wrong your data will be lost in the process if it's not backed up. Also note that your home folder needs to be located on a separate partition than your root partition, if not see #How to make partitions.
Second, install necessary software:
sudo apt-get install cryptsetup
Insert the new module, dm-crypt into the kernel:
sudo modprobe dm-crypt
Check to see what encryption schemes are available:
If only MD5 is listed, try inserting the appropriate modules into the kernel:
sudo modprobe serpent
Above is an example, this could also be twofish, blowfish or anything other crypto module that you would like to use.
The following commands will assume that your home partition is /dev/sda1, please change it to match your own configuration.
Next step we use cryptsetup to change the partition with the luksFormat option, this command will cause you to lose all data on /dev/sda1.
sudo cryptsetup luksFormat -c algorithm -y -s size /dev/sda1
Where algorithm is the algorithm that you chose above such as serpent aes, etc.
Size is the key size for encryption, this is generally 128 or 256. Without specifying the algorithm or the size, I believe it defaults to AES 256, more information and additional options can be found by reading the man page. The above step will ask you to choose a password and verify it. Do not forget this password.
We can then use the luksOpen option to open the encrypted drive.
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda1 home
Home is a nickname which cryptsetup uses to refer to /dev/sda1. It also creates the device /dev/mapper/home, this is what you would actually mount to access the filesystem. If you specify another name other than home, it will create the device /dev/mapper/[name], where [name] is the nickname that cryptsetup will use. This step will ask you for your LUKS passphrase, this is the password you created in the previous step.
Next, we create the actual filesystem on the device. I use reiserfs, but it could just as well be ext3.
sudo mkreiserfs /dev/mapper/home
sudo mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/home
Next step is to mount your encrypted device and copy your files back to your home directory.
mkdir new_home sudo mount /dev/mapper/home new_home cp -r * new_home
Now we have to set up everything so that it's ready to go at boot, we need to tell the system that there are encrypted disks that we want mounted.
gksudo gedit /etc/crypttab
Enter the following as one line at the end of the file.
home /dev/sda1 none luks,tries=3
remember home can be any name that you want, just remember that this maps to /dev/mapper/[name]. The option tries=3 allows 3 tries before a reboot is required or the disk is not decrypted.
Next enter the device info in fstab that we want to mount on boot.
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
Enter the information as one line at the end of the file.
/dev/mapper/home /home reiserfs defaults 0 0
Remember to substitute /dev/mapper/home with your device /dev/mapper/[name], /home is the mount point, since this is our home directory, reiserfs is the filesystem type, put ext3 if you formatted it as ext3. For now the default options should be good, change this if you need/require something else. Also, now is a good time to remove the old /dev/sda1 device entry so that fstab doesn't try to load it at boot. This can be accomplished by commenting out the /dev/sda1 line or deleting it.
Final step is to make sure that the proper modules are loaded at boot time.
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
Now add dm-crypt and the crypto module that you used earlier, such as serpent, aes, etc. Each needs to be on its own line.
That should be it, all that's required is a reboot. During the reboot process, the computer will say "Starting early crypto disks" and ask for your passphrase. If the passphrase is accepted, it will unlock the encrypted partition and mount it on your specified mount point.
You can change the way you enter a command in order to be executed by entering an alias.
For example, you may enter in a terminal "update-system" (a command that in face doesn't exists) that replaces "sudo apt-get update". You can do the same thing for other commands.
This is what you do. Our example is going to be the alias of the command
ls -FCal --color=auto
that shows with colours and many details the contents of a folder.
Open a terminal
应用程序 --> 附件 --> 终端
Be carefull now. Don't erase anything there.
Now, go to the end of the document and enter
alias ll="ls -FCal --color=auto"
As you can see, now with the command
whenever we want, we call, in fact, this one
ls -FCal --color=auto
You can do the same thing for other commands that need a lot of switches.
Save the document, close the terminal and reopen it. You may now check your new alias.
Tips & Tricks
Change the splash screen color
Originally a brownish color to match the Ubuntu theme, it does not quite fit with other themes and might want to be changed. Enter the gdm.conf file (sudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf). About two-thirds of the way down you will see the lines:
Change it to what you like. For all black, use:
Change the default Terminal window size
The default size of the Terminal window is around 80 columns wide and 24 columns high. To alter this, edit the file /usr/share/vte/termcap/xterm. You can use the following command:
sudo gedit /usr/share/vte/termcap/xterm
Just a few lines from the top will be the line reading:
Change the number right after co# to change the width. Change the number right after li# to change the height.
Change the Samba workgroup
- The Samba workgroup for use in a Windows network is set to "WORKGROUP" by default. It should be changed to match the workgroup used on your Windows network
- Edit the Samba configuration file:
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
- Edit the line:
workgroup = WORKGROUP
Change it to the name of your actual workgroup name. For example, my workgroup is MSHOME, so I changed the line to:
workgroup = MSHOME
Save the file.
Fix the shutdown "Network Error" display (restore shutdown splash screen)
Many Ubuntu systems have a minor bug when shutting down. Instead of displaying a splash screen indicating the progress of the shutdown process, the user is dropped out to a console screen flooded with shutdown notices (mostly network error messages). These messages are normal and expected, there is nothing to be concerned about. But it can be a bit unsightly, and it would seem that the Ubuntu team intended to have those messages hidden by the splash screen. The splash screen can be restored without much effort:
- Go to System → Administration → Login Window, and select the Local tab
- Select a different theme, then re-select the default theme ("Human"). This just refreshes the setting
- Click Close, then go back to System → Administration → Login Window, and select the Local tab again
- You'll notice that the settings are different to what you've just chosen. Restore the setting to their defaults -- Choose Selected only from the Theme drop-down box (instead of "Random from selected"), and re-select the default Ubuntu theme ("Human"). When complete, click Close. The setting will have saved properly this time, and the shutdown splash screen should work as intended.
Change the default runlevel
- create /etc/inittab
- add the following line: "id:3:initdefault:", the number represents the chosen runlevel
- now follow the README in your favourite runlevel folder in /etc/rcX.d/, where X is a number between 1-6
- now reboot, you are done! :)
How to make partitions
It is very easy to make partitions with Ubuntu .
Open a terminal and type:
sudo apt-get install gparted
Then navigate to
System --> Administration --> Partition Editor
Then gParted is going to check for your disks and partitions.
There you can modify your partitions but on those that are NOT on the System.
More info :
1) Usage of gParted (it is distributed as Live CD as well) -->http://howtoforge.com/partitioning_with_gparted
2) How to separate your /home partition in Ubuntu --> http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/separatehome
How to enable Compiz Fusion in Ubuntu
The only two things you have to do are to install the Compiz Configuration Settings Manager and the tray icon.
Open a terminal and type:
sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager fusion-icon
and it shall be installed. After that navigate to:
System --> Preferences --> Advanced Desktop Effects Settings
and there you may enable/disable any plugin you want.
To run Compiz-Fusion Tray Icon, nativate to:
Applications --> System Tools --> Compiz Fusion Icon
or run in the command line:
and the tray icon shall start.
Ultamatix: Install 101 Applications in One click including Games,codecs,applications
Ultamatix! It is actually based on Automatix, therefore it looks and acts exactly the same. The good news is that Ultamatix is designed to work with Ubuntu Ultimate Editon 1.8, Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron) and the unstable branch of Debian Linux.This is a new automatix alternative.
Check This Simple installation guide including screenshots
Wine is a Windows Win32 binary compatibility layer for Linux. Latest install instructions are always at: WineHQ.org
Add repository key:
wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
Add repository to apt sources:
sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/hardy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list
Update apt sources:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine
The program menu then appears in Programs under Wine, or double-click a Windows/DOS .exe file.
Unison - file synchronization tool
Unison is a file-synchronization tool for Unix and Windows. It allows two replicas of a collection of files and directories to be stored on different hosts (or different disks on the same host), modified separately, and then brought up to date by propagating the changes in each replica to the other.
Nice Installation and Usage Guide check This
PlayOnLinux is a Wine frontend which simplify installation and launch of many Windows programs, particularly games.
Add repository key:
wget -q http://playonlinux.botux.net/pol.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
Add repository to apt sources:
sudo wget http://playonlinux.botux.net/playonlinux_hardy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/playonlinux.list
Update apt sources:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install playonlinux
Tor, privoxy, and Tor GUI (Vidalia)
Tor is a software project that helps you defend against traffic analysis, a form of network surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy, confidential business activities and relationships, and state security. Tor protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world:
If you want to install and configure tor follow This Guide
How to Sync your emails, files, bookmarks, and any other type of personal information
Conduit is a synchronization solution for GNOME which allows the user to take their emails, files, bookmarks, and any other type of personal information and synchronize that data with another computer, an online service, or even another electronic device.Conduit manages the synchronization and conversion of data into other formats.
If you want to install and configure in Ubuntu Follow This Tutorial
How to install applications for study of religious texts
How to install Gnomesword (Bible study program)
- Read #General Notes
- Read #How to add extra repositories
- This installs the english version of the program.
sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
- If you require other languages type:
sudo apt-cache search bible
- Take a look at the sword-language-pack's and the sword-text's for additional languages and install as needed.
Gnomesword is found under Applications-->Accessories.
- Under KDE, use kio-sword instead of Gnomesword:
sudo apt-get install kio-sword
How to install a Quran researching tool (Zekr)
Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Quran.
- Make sure that You have enabled universe and multiverse Ubuntu repositories.
- Install zekr with the following command:
sudo apt-get install zekr zekr-quran-translations-en ttf-sil-scheherazade ttf-farsiweb
- You can add more Quran translations from here.
- If you like to upgrade to the latest stable version of zekr, which supports Quran Recitation and advanced boolean/regular expression search, follow instructions available Zekr wiki.
How to install Google Gadgets in Ubuntu Hardy
Google Gadgets for Linux provides a platform for running desktop gadgets under Linux, catering to the unique needs of Linux users. We are compatible with the gadgets written for Google Desktop for Windows as well as the Universal Gadgets on iGoogle. Following Linux norms, this project will be open-sourced, under the Apache License.
If you want to install these beautiful gadgets into your ubuntu desktop try This simple installation guide.
Playing N64 with the emulator Mupen64Plus for Linux
Mupen64 was originally a Nintendo 64 emulator for multi-OS. The development was dead, until someone started to check the source again, and thats what Mupen64Plus is about... Really good compatibility with different plugins for video/audio/controllers!!!
- Unzip it:
- Go to the directory:
Now its installed, you can run it from everywhere typing mupen64plus or just create an icon to it.
Watching Live-TV On Your Ubuntu Desktop With Zattoo
Zattoo has developed a software program that allows you to watch TV on your computer. All you need is a broadband connection and a current operating system (Windows XP or Vista, Mac OS X, or Linux). The service is legal and free of charge.
If you want to install and configure Zattoo in Ubuntu, check out this tutorial.
How to upgrade from Hardy Heron to Intrepid Ibex (for developers and bug reports only)
- This isn't yet a safe way to upgrade to the next version of Ubuntu. The packages are still in experimental stage, since the dependencies aren't ready yet. Most users should continue using the current stable edition. Testers consider running Ibext in a testing environment (for example, on a Virtual Machine, Wubi or Lubi.)
RSS Readers Available in Ubuntu Linux
RSS is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a “feed”, “web feed”, or “channel”) contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays.
If you are looking for RSS Readers Available in Ubuntu check This
Upgrade to Intrepid Manually
- Until the first Alphas enter the repositories, the update manager will not prompt you to install Intrepid Ibex with the command
- You can do it manually by changing your sources.list file:
- Backup the sources.list file:
sudo -i cd /etc/apt/ cp sources.list sources.list.backup
- Change the repositories:
- Delete everything in the old sources.list file and paste these:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main universe restricted multiverse deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-security universe main multiverse restricted deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates universe main multiverse restricted deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed universe main multiverse restricted deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports universe main multiverse restricted
- Update the repository cache:
sudo -i aptitude update
- Check in Software sources that everything has changed to Intrepid. No Hardy repos should be there. If there are, disable them and enable the Intrepid repos.
- Update the repository cache again, upgrade all packages, do a distrubution upgrade to Intrepid, then upgrade all the new Intrepid packages (some of these are voodoo steps):
Every command should be done alone and you have to check continuously which packages have conflicts with the old ones and which ones are being removed. Be careful: if important system packages are removed (libs, gcc , xorg packages, bash , ubuntu-desktop , gdm etc), you must reinstall them (this can happen in the case of meta-packages)
- Everything sould be done by advanced users and ONLY in testing environment. These packages are unstable (like those in [experimental] in Debian Sid/Unstable).
It has been reported that debconf package may not be installed automatically. Lock it's hardy version through Synaptic.
Upgrade to Intrepid automatically
- When the first Alphas enter their way into the repositories, change the repositories:
sudo update-manager -d
Check if the Hardy repositories are disabled and replaced by Intrepid repositories.