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Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)

Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, Feisty Fawn 的后续版本,于 2007 年 10 月 18 日已经发布。请帮忙测试和完善这份指南

这份指南由 Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). 发起。现在它由Latvia 大学Linux 中心和所有愿意贡献的其他人们共同维护。

这份手册可以在官方论坛 ubuntuforums.org 的UbuntuGuide.org 论坛 讨论。加入讨论吧。

前言

关于 Gutsy

  • 2007 年 10 月 18 日,Ubuntu 7.10 发布。
  • 它被命名为 Gutsy Gibbon,它是 Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn 的后续版本(Feisty +1 或紧接 Feisty 之后发布的版本)
  • Gutsy 将在桌面和服务器版本上提供 18 个月的支持
  • 要求更长期服务器版本支持的用户可以选择 Ubuntu 6.06 LTS ,而不是更新到 7.10, 因为 6.06 的安全支持直到 2011 年。

如何知道您正在使用的 Ubuntu 的版本

  • 阅读[[|#General Notes]]
  • 在 Gutsy 中转到 系统 -> 系统管理 -> 系统监视器 -> 系统 选项卡

或者在所有的 Ubuntu 版本及派生版中都可以使用这个命令:

lsb_release -a

Ubuntu 的更新的版本

  • Ubuntu 采用 6 个月的发行周期
  • 一般发布在 4 月和 10 月
  • 下一次的发布计划在 2008 年 4 月 24 日,并命名为 Ubuntu 8.04(Hardy Heron)即 Gutsy+1。
  • Hardy Heron 将是 LTS(长期支持)版本,将提供 5 年的服务器版本安全支持和 3 年的桌面版本支持。

Ubuntu 的老版本

如果您使用一个 Ubuntu 的过时的版本,您应该考虑将其升级到 Gutsy。 这个版本有相当多的改进,并且和将来的版本更加容易整合。如果您使用其作为一个生产环境,或您认为所有的事情都很完美,您可以考虑仍然使用长期支持版本(LTS)。

  • Dapper 是最新的 LTS 版本,Gutsy+1 的新版本将是下一个 LTS 版本。

一般说明

  1. 这是一个非官方的 Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) 初学者向导. 它与 Ubuntu和 Canonical 公司都没有关系.
  2. 这个向导发自于官方论坛(UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org).欢迎参与讨论。 
  3. 如果您看到蓝色方框,这意味着您需要在终端模式中执行这些命令(应用程序 -〉附件 -〉终端)或者按照相应说明执行方框中的内容。
  4. 在终端模式,您也可以用“复制”“粘贴”来代替用键盘键入命令,这样往往可以有效的防止输入错误。(Ctrl+c=复制,Shift+Insert=粘贴)
  5. "sudo" 表示 "substitute user do. sudo 需要您提供密码(密码不会在终端中回显). 您可以利用sudo代替另一个用户在计算机上操作-比如  sudo -u peter <命令> 将会以peter的身份在计算机上执行此命令。
  6. 欲获得更多关于命令的信息,请参阅手册页。例如,在终端中输入“man sudo”可以获得与sudo相关的信息。
  7. 您也可以使用更新管理器来代替"apt-get"(系统-系统管理-更新管理器)
  8. "apt-get"和"wget"都需要网络连接来下载安装和更新程序
  9. 所以涉及 "aptitude"的选项都可以用"apt-get"替代.当然可以继续使用"aptitude",但是这可能会造成一些依赖性上的问题。
  10. 可以点击右键选择“链接另存为”来下载文件,但必须保证文件的名字和拓展名都是正确的
  11. 如果您有意向帮助Ubuntu本土化,请访问 https://launchpad.net/
  12. 善待他人的理念永远和Ubuntu一起伴随着您...
  13. 如果使用的是64位的版本,请在“i386”用“amd64”代替

外部链接申明

这份指南中的很多部分都有外部链接,这可以使这份指南更加精悍,然而Ubuntugide.org不能保证每个链接都是有效的。我们不能对本指南以外的一些拓展链接负责,如果您发现哪个链接是无效的,那请在此处报告问题,或者为我们修正那些指向错误的外部链接。因为有您,我们才能做的更加完美。

关于链接出错

如果您发现某个链接是错误的或者无法找到相关信息,那请将此连接贴到此处,包括您是在哪段里找到此链接的。谢谢合作!

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关于Ubuntu以及官方的一些相关内容

Ubuntu 7.10的相关指导


Ubuntu截图

Ubuntu 7.10 截图展示 

Kubuntu 7.10 导航和链接

Kubuntu 截图

Kubuntu 7.10 屏幕截图相册

Xubuntu 7.10 导航和链接

Xubuntu 截图

Xubuntu 7.10 屏幕截图相册

Edubuntu 7.10 导航和链接

Edubuntu 官方网站
维基百科:Edubuntu

Gobuntu 7.10 导航和链接

维基百科:Gobuntu

翻译和本地化

Ubuntu对中文,日文,葡萄牙文及其它的欧洲语言的支持比对其它语言的支持要好。如果您的语言没有足够的支持的话,那么您可以帮助Ubuntu翻译成您喜欢的语言。翻译请访问 translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu 并登录(如果没有注册的话请先注册)。选择您喜欢的语言并开始翻译。

更新升级和安装软件

如何添加新的软件仓库

Work in Progress

通过菜单

  • 选择更加友好的软件仓库。这是Ubuntu发行系统的一部分。推荐使用这种方法。
系统-->系统管理-->软件源

在您认为您将要用到的软件仓库(main, universe, restricted, multiverse)的前面选中。您可能不需要源码软件仓库。

  • 增加第三方软件仓库。这些软件仓库不会被监视,然而,有些十分流行。使用第三方软件仓库会增加您的风险。
系统-->系统管理-->软件源-->第三方软件-->添加

为您的软件仓库命名。在这个例子中,我们将要用Medibuntu,一个十分流行但是没有被Ubuntu接纳的软件仓库。

APT行:deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • 下载任何需要的 gpg 钥匙并将它们添加到钥匙列表。钥匙是用来验证软件仓库和系统的配套性。我们用Medibuntu 的软件仓库(非 Ubuntu 附属)的例子来说明:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

手动方法

  • 备份您现有的软件源列表
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • 用一个文本编辑器打开软件源列表

Ubuntu 的用户:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • 用下面的行复盖所有内容
如果您希望使用当地的软件仓库境象站点,请在 archive.ubuntu.com前面加上“cc.” (cc = 您的国家缩写)
例如 deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

  1. 包括了发行版发布後的後续漏洞修复更新

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted 

  1. 社区维护的开源软件 (Universe)

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe

  1. 被版权与合法性问题限制的软件 (Multiverse)

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse

  1. 移植应用程序 (Backports)

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

  1. Canonical 合作伙伴软件仓库

deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse

  1. PLF 软件仓库 (不被支持的. 可能包括非法软件包. 使用它具有一定风险.)

deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free

  • 保存编辑好的文件
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

sudo apt-get update

怎样从Feisty 升级到 Gutsy

如何编辑自动更新

  • 从菜单打开自动更新:
系统-->管理-->软件源-->更新

选定重要安全更新和建议安全更新以及其他需要的更新。选取定期更新。

如何手动升级 Ubuntu

  • 查阅[[|#General Notes]]
  • 查阅[[|#How to add extra repositories]]
  • 通过命令行:

使用http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ 网页来生成/etc/apt/sources.list 文件

备份现有的/etc/apt/sources.list文件
根椐浏览器中生成的页面内容,创建新的/etc/apt/sources.list 文件
然後运行下面的命令

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get upgrade sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

  • 通过主菜单:
System -> Administration -> Update Manager
系统 ->系统管理 ->更新管理器

添加应用程序

Miscellaneous Applications

The application in this section need a home. If Editors have the time, please place these apps in an appropriate category. If the category doesn't exist then make it. Destroy this message when complete. Thanks. --KrazyPenguin 06:16, 27 October 2007 (EEST)

Hotwire - Ubuntu的图形化终端

如果您想要一个Ubuntu的图形化终端,这个将非常有用

如何在ubuntu下安装 Epiphany浏览器

如果您希望知道如何在 ubuntu 下安装 Epiphany 浏览器请留意下面的内容

Midori - Ubuntu下的一个轻量级网页浏览器

如果您想知道如何在ubuntu中安装Midori网页浏览器请留意下面的内容

apturl - Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon 的操作方法扩展

如果您想要使用浏览器安装Ubuntu软件包的话,这里有一个简单的工具

sysvconfig - init脚本配置实用工具

sysvconfig - 在Ubuntu下,配置 init脚本、链接、服务的命令行的工具。

如何在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent

如果您想在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent下面的东西对您有用

aMSN使用

一键挂载/卸载ISO镜像

启动管理器

启动管理器 -用于更改GRUB、GRUB2和Usplash的设置

Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386

首先

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

然後

wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update

接着我们安装上阅读器及其插件

sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript

同样,您可以安装上Firefox的插件

sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread

享用Adobe Reader

OpenOffice 插件

用Ubuntu下的OpenOffice打开.docx文件(其它的发行版本可能也可行)

首先我们需要下载转换工具,它可以从这里下载> [1] 下载"odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm"

如果您还没有安装alien的话,现在把它装上

sudo apt-get install alien

接着转换它的包格式,我们不想让它转换为.deb包,所以我们使用-ct的命令参数,而不是-k,命令参数-ct将其转换为.tgz包

sudo alien -ct odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm

转换好後您需要将包解压缩

tar xvf odf-converter-1.0.0.tgz

现在在您的桌面上或者任何您将其解压缩的地方都会有3个文件夹

运行

sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/program/OdfConverter /usr/lib/openoffice/program/
sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter/MOOXFilter_cpp.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter
sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types/MOOXTypeDetection.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types

Then you are done, you can now open and edit .docx files ONLY I will post the others when I find them.

在Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy)上安装"odf converter"还有另一种方法,只需如下简单的3步:

(首先确保您拥有root权限,在终端下,输入sudo su -并在提示後输入您的密码)

第一步: echo "deb http://ubuntu.org.ua/ getdeb/" >>/etc/apt/sources.list

第二步: apt-get update

第三步: apt-get install odf-converter

我试了以上3步并让它成功在我机器上运行了起来,大家可以试试,以便让我知道是否会有人用出问题来。

 

族谱研究与分析管理软件 (Gramps)

GRAMPS(Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System), 是一个在GTK/GNOME界面下,由Python语言编写的开源族谱学程序。GRAMPS 可以导入诸如在Windows下由FamilyTree Maker生成的GEDCOM文件,并且可以生成多种格式的报告,例如流行的ABIword和OpenOffice.org格式,以及HTML和PDF格式。

sudo apt-get install gramps

桌面

怎样使用Tweak优化您的Ubuntu?

详细的Tweak使用说明请点击如下页面:

怎样优化Ubuntu系统

AMOR - a creature for your desktop

If you want to add some fun to your ubuntu desktop this is for you


高级桌面特效 (Compiz Fusion)

Compiz Fusion 是 Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 默认安装的,也就是说通常用户是不需要修改关键的配置文件的。但是在很多地方,Compiz 需要私有驱动以确保您的显卡可以正常工作,因此,您必须确认您是否安装了它要求的驱动。

要开启桌面特效,打开 系统 > 首选项 > 外观视觉效果 选项卡下您将看到三个选项: 正常附加。如果要开启 Compiz,请在后两项中选择一个。

如果您希望定制您的 Compiz 选项和插件,譬如动画效果或桌面立方体,您需要先去安装一个配置工具:

sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager 

然后打开外观对话框,在视觉效果选项卡下选择 自定义gtk 首选项, 或者通过选择菜单的 系统 > 首选项 > Advanced Desktop Effects Settings来打开配置界面。您也可以在终端或运行对话框(ALT + F2)中输入 ccsm来打开它。

ATI 用户与 Compiz

一部分 ATI 显卡不需要私有的驱动就可以开启 Compiz,就好比说开源的(radeon)也是支持3D加速的。尽管如此,开源驱动仍做不到像闭源的(fglrx) 那么快。好吧,如果您需要一个私有驱动,您就需要安装后在终端做一点小的修正。


1. 首先,无论您是从其他网站还是在ATI官方网站下载的,当您安装完驱动后,您必须设置 Xorg 的配置文件来使您的新驱动生效。一定不要忘记在修改之前备份好当前的文件,如果那一步做错了,可以随时打开终端并输入:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf

此项操作将禁用默认的 radeon 驱动并开启 ATI 的驱动。


2. 现在,我们来告诉 Compiz 不要管那些列在黑名单中的驱动:

echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" >> $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager

当然,您也可以将它加入白名单。这将是更加完美的解决方案。运行这个命令来编辑Compiz的启动脚本:

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz

搜索 Driver whitelist 然后在行的结尾处增加 fglrx,像这样:

# Driver whitelist
WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"


3. 重启您的计算机,登录然后开启Compiz 作为上面提到的 et voilà! 看一看 Compiz 拥抱 ATI 吧!

系统实时监视

sudo apt-get install netspeed
 

在顶部面板的空白区域右击并选择“添加到面板..."。添加”系统监视器“和”网络监视器“。在系统监视器上右击并选择”选项“。添加您想监视的监视资源。

桌面会话录制

用来记录整个桌面会话,包括鼠标指针和系统音效。这对于视频截屏是很有用的工具,因为按Print Screen键所生成的常规静态图像往往不能表明所有的东西。有三个程序可以为您做到这些,他们是Istanbul,Wink和gtk-recordMyDesktop。

Istanbul
sudo apt-get install istanbul
Wink
sudo apt-get install wink
gtk-recordMyDesktop
sudo apt-get install gtk-recordmydesktop

International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution)

To switch to the new international clock applet download it from Here then install it with dpkg.

Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:

>Add to panel...>Miscellaneous>International Clock>Add

You got it.

Add World Map and choose World locations using its Preferences menu

备份

如果你想使用Sbackup备份Ubuntu Desktop。

如果你想使用rdiff-backup备份ubuntu

游戏

冰冻泡泡

要安装冰冻泡泡游戏,运行:

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble

或者使用 系统 > 管理工具 下的新利得软件包管理器,找到它并安装。

如何解数独

这里有一个简单的 Perl script 来帮助您解数独。它不支持 trial-and-error.

  超级任天堂模拟器 (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64

  • 阅读[[|#General Notes]]

需要支持或提问,请查阅 http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744

ZSNES 1.51 已经被Gutsy官方 i386 软件仓库收录。尽管这样,它还没有官方的 AMD64 版本。i386 version is known to have issues in Gutsy (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=571666). There is a workaround available for i386 users who are experiencing this error (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=3604026&postcount=22).

  • 加入第三方软件仓库
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • 使用下面命令行中的其中一行完成安装
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #专供 amd64 用户

sudo apt-get install zsnes #供所有其他用户

  • 应用程序 > 游戏 > zsnes 或 zsnes32

索尼PS模拟器 (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64

  • 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]

需要支持或提问,请查看 http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097

  • 加入第三方软件仓库
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • 使用下面的其中一个命令行完成安装
sudo apt-get install psx32 #专供 amd64 用户

sudo apt-get install psx #供其他所有用户

  • 应用程序 > 游戏 > pSX 或 pSX32

KDE 游戏

安装 KDE3 中的自带游戏 (Kubuntu 用户无须安装)。安装 kdegames 软件包。这可以通过输入下面的命令完成:

sudo apt-get install kdegames

UrbanTerror 4.0

  • UrbanTerror 4.0 is a Multi-player First Person Shooter. The Game uses the open source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free to use servers for multi-player functionality.

More information can be found at UrbanTerror

  • After downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the script executable with the following command:
sudo chmod +x urt40-linux-installer.sh
  • Now double click on the script to execute and follow the directions
  • The install will take awhile as the script executes a download of the necessary files which are about 541MB
  • After the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root)

This easy install script is courtesy of Nexu from the UrbanTerror Forums.

CD/DVD

怎样提取DVD视频

dvd::rip 是用Perl编写的全功能DVD复制程序。它提供了一个简单易用而又功能丰富的图形用户界面,以此来控制视频提取和编码转换的几乎所有方面。他使用知名的视频处理程序swissknife编码转换和其他许多开源工具。

sudo apt-get install dvdrip

怎样刻录DVD视频

dvdauthor 是一个可以从有效的mpeg2视频流生成可以在DVD播放器里播放的DVD影片的程序。

sudo apt-get install dvdauthor

怎样刻录CD/DVD

nautilus-cd-burner是一款初级的,预安装的用来刻写CD或者DVD的程序。Serpentine是一款预安装的音频CD创建程序。Serpentine在制作音频CD时,可以实时转换flac和mp3格式。 nerolinux 是一款非免费的CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD刻录软件。k3b是一款出色的KDE下的CD/DVD刻写工具(是 Kubuntu 用户的理想选择). 不过如果您要在 GTK/Gnome平台下寻找替代品,那么或许您会喜欢 brasero, cdw/gcdw, gcdmaster, graveman and gnomebaker

dvdisaster为由于刮伤和老化所造成的CD和DVD数据丢失提供了保全的余地。如果光碟是在最近损坏的,它可以生成修复数据用来恢复无法读取的区段。

互联网

浏览器插件

Ubuntu 会在Firefox中自动安装浏览站点所需的插件。不过如果您想安装插件,可以在终端里执行以下命令:

安装 Java 插件:

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin

安装 Flash 插件:

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

或者您想支持开源flash插件:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash

安装 VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc

安装 MPlayer 插件 (同时自动安装 MPlayer ):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer

安装 Real player 插件 (同时自动安装 helix-player):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player

安装 kaffeine 安装 (同时自动安装 kaffeine ):

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla

安装 image-zoom 插件 (用于在页面内缩放图像):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom

安装 adblock 插件 (用于屏蔽网页中的广告):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock

Gutsy包含从 Ubuntu 源中向Firefox添加扩展的选项。添加扩展的选项是默认包含的。如需查看和添加 Ubuntu Add-ons:

  • 在Firefox中,进入Tools> Add-ons
  • 点击"Get Ubuntu Addons"
  • 查看所有可用的add-ons,点击 "Show:" 下方的列表并选择 "All Available Applications"
  • 选择任意您需要的add-ons,并点击 "Apply Changes"
  • 您可以从通常的Firefox add-on 列表中查看您已经安装了哪个add-ons。

(提示: 所有的 Ubuntu add-ons 同样都可以通过新立得包管理器中获得。)

Shockwave

'Shockwave'没有相应的 Ubuntu/Linux 版本,但是可以用WINE来运行 这个方法将使得计算机中安装2个Firefox浏览器 仅当网站需要时才使用WINE的版本 原始版本的Firefox能提供更好的计算机性能, 所以在其他情况下都应该是用它

  • 安装 WINE
  • 下载并安装Windows版Firefox
  • 下载并安装Windows版Shockwave

下载管理器 (X中的下载器)

要安装X中的下载器,只需简单执行:

sudo apt-get install d4x

或者使用系统 > 管理菜单中的新立得包管理器来寻找和安装 "d4x" 包。

FTP 客户端 (FileZilla)

FileZilla 是一个从windows环境下移植的功能强大的FTP客户端。它发布到第三个版本并成为跨平台的软件,可以通过 Ubuntu Gutsy源获得。

要安装 FileZilla FTP客户端,只需简单执行:

sudo apt-get install filezilla

或者使用系统 > 管理菜单中新立得包管理器来寻找和安装 "filezilla" 包。

为Gmail配置Evolution

访问http://mail.google.com/mail/ 点击设置 (由商家). 选择转发和 POP/IMAP.

  • 如果你想使用POP协议,选择"针对所有邮件启用 POP(包括已经下载的邮件)"或"对从现在起所收到的邮件启用 POP"中的一个。
  • 如果你想使用IMAP协议,选择"启用 IMAP"。

保存更改.

从程序 -> Internet -> Evolution Mail 打开Evolution。如果以前没有建立过邮件帐户,系统将自动打开邮件帐户建立向导。从Edit(编辑) -> preferences(选项) -> Mail Accounts(邮件帐户) -> Add(添加) 打开简历邮件帐户向导。点击 Forward(下一步)。输入你的Gmail地址 (包括 @gmail.com)。点击 Forward(下一步)。

  • 如果你想通过POP访问Gmail,设置"Server Type(服务类型)" 为 POP, "Server(服务器地址)" 为 pop.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" 为 "SSL encryption(SSL加密)".
  • 如果你想通过IMAP访问Gmail,设置"Server Type(服务类型)" 为 IMAP, "Server(服务器地址)" 为 imap.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" 为 "SSL encryption(SSL加密)".

点击 Forward(下一步)。点击 Forward(下一步)。设置"Server(smtp服务器地址)" 为 smtp.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" 为 "SSL encryption(SSL加密)"。点击 Forward(下一步)。点击 Forward(下一步)。点击应用。

注意:GMAIL 对 IMAP的支持开始大量的普及(Oct. 2007) 但是并不是所有的用户的账号都已经支持,所以建议使用POP协议知道所有的用户账号到支持IMAP协议. 译者语:通过浏览GMAIL帮助中心并没有发现IMAP的支持还没有应用到所有用户,并尝试开通了IMAP服务发现服务正常。(May. 2008)

SwiftFox

Swiftfox is the Firefox web browser, but built with optimizations to increase speed on specific CPU types. It is compatible with all Firefox extensions and themes, and uses the same settings location as Firefox, so you can use both transparently.

Instructions from getswiftfox.com

  • Add the Swiftfox repository
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add this line at the bottom
deb http://getswiftfox.com/builds/debian unstable non-free
  • Update apt sources
sudo apt-get update
  • Check your CPU compatibility here
  • Install your version of Swiftfox
sudo apt-get install swiftfox-pentium4
  • Run with
Programs > Internet > Swiftfox
  • There is also an [installer] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.

Azureus (Java BitTorrent 客户端) 

安装Azureus的简单方法是: sudo apt-get install azureus 但是它有相当多的依赖关系。 这里讨论了一个替代的方法。另外,您创建一个文件 /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop 在其中添加下列命令行使得它出现在主菜单中。


[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8 Type=Application Terminal=false Name=Azureus Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus Comment=Java BitTorrent client Categories=Application;Network; MimeType=application/x-bittorrent; Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png


(这里假设 azureus 安装在 /usr/local directory)

更新:一个全新的Azureus包现已可以从gutsy-backports获得,相比main源中的版本好的多。它修复了许多稳定性问题并且使用icedtea/Java 7编译。当您阅读此内容时,它可能已经可以从main源中获得了。因而,您应该在通过apt-get安装azureus之前确认使用了gutsy-backports源。

Deluge ( 一个用python编写的轻量级的BitTorrent客户端)

如果您需要一个比Azureus占用更少内存和CPU时间的客户端,那么您可以尝试Deluge。然而由于从Ubuntu 源获取的版本存在稳定性问题,那么比较好的选择是使用Deluge官方网站 上现成的Gutsy专用包来安装最新的版本。安装只需点击和您的版本和系统架构(“i386”对应32位系统而“x86_64"对应64位系统)对应的Debian包并选择使用GDebi package installer来安装它。

DC++ client (Linuxdcpp)

  • Install:
sudo apt-get install linuxdcpp
  • Then go
Main Menu->Intenet->DC++

多媒体播放器

怎样安装 Mplayer 和 Multimedia Codecs(解码器)

   安装 mplayer 和 codecs的简单向导

  • 这里 下载 SMPlayer (MPlayer的一个很棒的前端) 然後双击安装它。 smplayer这个前端也可以在软件包管理器中安装。
  关于64位版本 Mplayer 对 wmv9 格式支持问题

    AMD64版本的Mplayer不能正确的播放wmv9格式的文件。 要播放wmv9,您需要安装32位版本的mplayer, 和所有需要的解码器.。相较于我新安装的Gutsy,我不需要额外安装它所依赖的库文件,这让配置mplayer的工作简单多了。这就是说,做完这些步骤後您就可以随时观赏wmv9的文件了。

下载  mplayer32 for Edgy 的版本 (被证明能稳定地工作) 放到临时的文件夹中。

mkdir mplayer32temp

cd mplayer32temp wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb

解开您刚才下载的这个压缩包,放到合适的地方 (按 'n'当 问您是否要为文件更换位置)

sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./

sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/ sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/

从mplayerrhq 获取最新的 win32 codecs (下面命令中是10月7日版本, 2007), 解压缩然後安装 (同样, 在问到更换位置时按'n' )

wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2

tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2 sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/

播放 wmv9 影片.(享受它)

mplayer32 foobar.wmv


怎样安装 amaroK 多媒体播放器

  • 注意: KDE 环境下, Amarok 已经默认安装 。
sudo apt-get install amarok
  • 从菜单启动:
Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK
怎样卸载 amaroK
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove amarok

怎样获得MP3文件播放时的鼠标滑过预览

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras 
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio 
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat 
sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins

这个方法可能会破坏Skype软件的声音系统

您也能通过下面的步骤实现鼠标滑过预览:

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd 
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools 
sudo apt-get install esound 
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

这样系统中的Skype会保持正常功能

怎样安装VLC媒体播放器

sudo apt-get install vlc

卸载VLC媒体播放器:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove vlc

怎样安装 Banshee 音乐管理和播放器

sudo apt-get install banshee

卸载:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee

怎样编码/解码音频

sox是一个很棒的命令行工具,它不但是一个普通的编码/解码器而且还是一个很好的合成器。阅读它的手册以获得更多的信息。

Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output

sudo apt-get install sox


sox不能处理Real Audio格式,您需要mplayer来把.rm文件转换成.wav文件,然后使用sox把波形文件转换成其它格式的文件。 

mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm

怎样编码/解码视频

mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora, 等使一些视频转换工具。 阅读他们的手册获取信息

sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora

怎样编辑音频

sudo apt-get install lmms
sudo apt-get install audacity

怎样编辑视频

sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video

Text-to-Speech

Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech

编程/网页开发 

Quanta Plus

(Quanta是一个KDE应用程序,但也能在工作在GNOME中) 安装Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc 网站创建软件:

sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia
Applications > Programming > Quanta Plus

Netbeans IDE

Netbeans 是一个平台非依赖的Java 集成开发环境。但它也能以插件的形式支持C/C++, Ruby, portals 和其他一些工具。从编写的角度看,5.5版是最新的稳定版本并且可以如下方式安装:

sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5

或者您可以下载 Netbeans 6.0 并手动安装它。安装包的大小会从 11 MB 到 200 MB不等。

Netbeans Web & Java EE 集成包

如果您想使用NetBeans来进行网站开发并集成Java EE,下载 "Netbeans with Web & Java EE" 集成包,对于安装附加模块的插件机制不受推荐,因为它将其安装在用户目录(~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/)而不是系统范围内的安装目录(/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/) 

Netbeans Web & Java EE 集成包带有2个内建的运行环境:

  • GlassFish V2 Build 58g
  • Apache Tomcat 6.0.14

他们对开发和出品都十分有利。这样您就不用分别安装Sun Java Application Server和Apache Tomcat。同样,卸载Netbeans将不会卸载他们。您需要分别卸载他们。

但如果您想要另外安装服务器,通常您需要以root身份运行Netbeans。或者您也可以改变Tomcat和GlassFish配置文件的用户/组和权限以使他们和Netbeans协同工作。

Eclipse IDE

Eclipse IDENetbeans IDE 之外的另一个选择。事实上,它或许在Linux用户中更流行。您可以从 Eclipse website 直接安装它或者使用 apt-get来安装:

sudo apt-get install eclipse

Anjuta IDE

Anjuta 是一个主要用作 C/C++ 开发的集成开发环境。不如其他集成开发环境那样可靠。然而,它仍有一些有用的插件提供了大多数其他集成开发环境所具有的功能。(GUI 开发, 项目向导,等)

sudo apt-get install anjuta

实用工具

压缩工具

Zip, Gzip 和 Bzip2 是几乎所有Linux上都提供的最流行的压缩工具。但也有较新的两种压缩工具可供使用:p7zip (http://7-zip.org/), ace and rar (http://www.rarlab.com/)。 7-zip 是一个开源项目,而 rar and ace 不是。

sudo apt-get install rar unrar
sudo apt-get install p7zip-full 
sudo apt-get install unace

Ark 是KDE中的压缩工具并支持包括rar在内的更多格式。

sudo apt-get install ark

 剪贴板管理器(Glipper)

要安装Glipper只需简单运行:

sudo apt-get install glipper

或者使用System > Administration 菜单下中的Synaptic Package Manager来搜索和安装 "glipper" 包。

密码管理器 (KeePassX)

KeePass是一个跨平台的密码管理器。安装它只需简单运行:

sudo apt-get install keepassx

或者使用System > Administration 菜单下中的Synaptic Package Manager来搜索和安装 "keepassx" 包。

怎样修复/集成nautilus的蓝牙功能

在某些系统中蓝牙设备的 "Browse Device" 功能不能正常工作。

要修复这个问题:

sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp

或者

sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp

怎样安装 Google Earth (地球仪软件)

Google earth是一个世界地图查看器. 它可以3D的形式显示的建筑以及桥梁. 默认的时候它是显示的是静态的图片. 最新版式中包含了鸟瞰世界的功能. 点击 这里 查看更多相关的信息.

Google Earth is available in the Medibuntu Package archive. To install google-earth from Medibuntu:

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update sudo aptitude install googleearth

除此之外您还可以直接从Google下载安装程序进行安装:

下载 Google Earth到您的桌面. 打开终端并运行n:

chmod +x Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin

按照说明完成安装. 卸载Google earth,执行以下命令:

sudo su /opt/google-earth/uninstall

怎样安装 Picasa (Google 开发的照片管理工具)

Picasa 是一款帮助您立即查找、编辑和共享在您的电脑上的所有照片的软件. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:

sudo apt-get install picasa
  • 下载 自解压安装程序并按照说明配置 Google Earth.
  • 安装Windows (需要WINE支持).

如何安装 Google Desktop

Google Desktop (search utility)


Google Desktop 是一个桌面搜索应用程序,它可以让您很容易的获取您计算机和网络当中的信息.


Desktop 让搜索您自己的电子邮件、文件、音乐、照片变得如同使用Google搜索网络一样简单。您通过下面两种途径下载Google Desktop:

sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux

怎样安装 ntop (网络监控工具)

Ntop 是一个网络监控工具。您可以监控本地的设备以及有 Netflow 输出的设备 (例如一个 Cisco 路由器)。它也很容易安装,打开一个终端并输入:

sudo apt-get install ntop

现在它已经安装好了,您需要做一些基本的设置。再一次在终端中输入:

sudo ntop

您会被要求输入一个密码,然后确认这个密码。这将成为ntop网页界面的管理员密码。接下来,我们需要安装 "Dot", 它是 "Graphviz" 包的一部分:

sudo apt-get install graphviz

现在,再一次在终端中输入:

sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start

行了! ntop 运行了! 尝试浏览 http://127.0.0.1:3000 来开始吧。您将需要把dot的路径添加到 ntop 的设置中。

Admin -> Configure (Enter admin user/pass) -> Preferences

在最后加入一个新的设置:

dot.path /usr/bin/dot

您现在应该可以从IP -> Local -> Network Traffic Map 得到一个网络的图像了。

访问 http://www.ntop.org/ 获取更多信息。

怎样安装经文学习软件

怎样安装 Gnomesword (圣经学习程序)
sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
  • 如果您需要其他的语言类型:
sudo apt-cache search bible
  • 查看类似 sword-language-pack 以及 sword-text 的包来寻找和安装需要的附加语言。

Gnomesword 可以在 Applications-->Accessories 下找到。

  • 在 KDE 中,使用 kio-sword 来替代 Gnomesword:
sudo apt-get install kio-sword
怎样安装古兰经研究工具 (Zekr)

Zekr 是一个开放平台的古兰经学习工具,使用它可以简便地浏览和研究古兰经。

sudo wget http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/zekr.list 
wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-me-quran ttf-sil-scheherazade sudo apt-get install ttf-farsiweb flashplugin-nonfree
  • Zekr 带有附加的古兰经翻译版本,包括波斯语, 乌尔都语, 法语, 俄语, 英语, 土耳其语, 波斯尼亚语, 德语。他们的包名称为zekr-quran-translations-XY,这里 XY 是语言的 ISO 码。 在终端中运行:
apt-cache search zekr-quran-translations

可以列出他们。然后从结果列表中选择适合的包并安装它。例如:如果你想安装英文古兰经则执行以下命令:

sudo apt-get install zekr-quran-translations-en

怎样安装教育软件

How to install Mnemosyne

Mnemosyne is a sophisticated free flash-card tool which optimizes your learning process. To install the latest version in the repositories run the following command

sudo apt-get install mnemosyne

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System => Administration menu, to locate and install the mnemosyne package.

To install the latest version (the one in the repository is somewhat out of date) first install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install python python-pygame python-qt3 python-support python-xml

then download the latest source package from here:

wget http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

(correct as of 11 Nov 2007)

Decompress it:

tar -xzf mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

go to the directory

cd mnemosyne-0.9.10/

run this command to install it:

sudo python setup.py install

To create a launcher for it in your Applications Menu:

System => Preferences => Main Menu => Education (or wherever) => New Item:

Name: Mnemosyne Command: mnemosyne

安全 

怎样重设用户密码

sudo apt-get install john

sudo john /etc/shadow

怎样重设ROOT用户的密码

重启Ubuntu进入安全模式并输入:

passwd


来修ROOT用的密码

怎样创建或修改GRUB启动菜单的密码

请点击这里.

如果忘记GRUB启动菜单的密码怎样修改root用户的密码

点击 这里. To prevent this, you have to set a bios password and set hard disk as the first boot device.

服务器

Samba 服务器

怎样安装 Samba 服务器来共享文件以及文件夹

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

怎样添加/修改/删除网络用户

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
  • 将下行添加到新文件中
system_username = "network username"
  • 保存编辑过的文件
  • 修改网络用户 
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • 要删除网络用户 
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

如何以只读或读写权限

共享主文件夹(Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • 找到这一行 
...
security = user 
...
  • 用下面两行替换
security = user 
username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • 移除下面每行前的分号“;”(there will text in between explaining what they do):
;[homes] ;comment = Home 
;Directories 
;browseable = no 
;valid users = %S 
;writable = yes
  • 如果希望其他网络用户有权编辑文件夹,则修改以下行
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next 
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them. 
; writable = no
  • 用下面一行代替 
writable = yes
sudo testparm sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/group

sudo chmod 777 /home/group/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following lines
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]

comment = Group Folder path = /home/group public = yes writable = no valid users = system_username1 system_username2 create mask = 0700 directory mask = 0700 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
writable = yes
  • Save the edited file
  • Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/public

sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following lines
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]

comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = yes create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
writable = yes
  • 2. Save the edited file
  • 2. Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/public

sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following line
security = share

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of /etc/samba/smb.conf (for a read-only folder)
[public]

comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = no create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
writable = yes


  • 2. Save the edited file
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

  • Read [[|#Print Server (cupsd)]]
  • Make sure your Ubuntu printers are configured properly.
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup

gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

Find the following lines
...
  1. printing = cups
  2. printcap name = cups

...

and uncomment them.
printing = cups

printcap name = cups

Restart cups server
sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.


iTunes-compatible Media server

If you want iTunes-compatible Media server in Ubuntu try this

GLPI - IT and asset Managemet Software

If you want IT and asset Managemet Software in Ubuntu try this

PostgreSQL

Postgresql is a well supported and open source database server. There is a long debate regarding whether MySQL is better or PostgreSQL. Actually, there are similar debates like it: Gnome vs KDE, Perl vs Python, PHP vs JSP, Java vs .Net (or Mono). But from installation point of view, it has been seen that PostgreSQL is lighter and requires less dependency than MySQL.

Installing PostgreSQL

To Install PostgreSQL (both client and server):

sudo apt-get install postgresql-8.2

To install PostgreSQL documentation:

sudo apt-get install postgresql-doc-8.2

To install JDBC3 driver for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install libpg-java

To enable php support for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install php5-pgsql

To do administrative works graphically:

sudo apt-get install pgadmin3

To do web-based administrative works:

sudo apt-get install phppgadmin

Configuring PostgreSQL

To use postgresql, create a database instance and a user/role:

sudo -u postgres createdb $USER

sudo -u postgres createuser $USER

Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:

psql

To login as the administrator:

sudo -u postgres psql

To be able to login from remote machine or from PHP or through JDBC driver, you have to set your password from PostgreSQL client (psql):

ALTER USER user PASSWORD 'pass';

replace user and pass by your user name and password respectively. To test whether remote login works or not, run:

psql -h host -p 5432 -d database -U user

Visit http://www.php.net/manual/en/ref.pgsql.php to see how php works with PostgreSQL.

Using pgadmin3

To configure PostgreSQL using pgadmin3:

  • Open psql client as administrator postgres (see above Configure PostgreSQL)
  • Change the password for the administrator postgres (see above)
  • Open Applications -> System Tools -> pgAdmin III from main menu.
  • Open File -> Add Server...
  • Set Address to localhost or 127.0.0.1 (or something you have set)
  • Give a Description by which this connection will be identified.
  • Accept default port (5432), SSL (_blank_), Maintenance DB (postgres) and Username (postgres)
  • set the Password that you have set earlier. Click OK.

Using phppgadmin

To configure PostgreSQL using phppgadmin run:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/phppgadmin /var/www/phpPgAdmin

Set a password for administrator: postgres (see [[|#Configuring_PostgreSQL]]).

Open /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php and change:

$conf['extra_login_security'] = false;

It will enable administrative login. Finally visit http://localhost/phpPgAdmin/ to login.

Using PostgreSQL with OpenOffice

  • Open Applications -> Office -> OpenOffice.org Database.
  • Select 'Connect to an existing database'. From the list select JDBC and click Next.
  • Make Datasource URL to:
jdbc:postgresql://localhost/database

Replace localhost by your hostname, database by the database instance you have created.

  • Set JDBC driver class to:
org.postgresql.Driver
  • Click 'Test class' to make sure JDBC driver class connects Datasource URL properly. Click Next.
  • Type your User name and select 'Password required' option.
  • Click Test connection. A popup dialog will appear. Enter your password and click OK.
  • If everything works properly, then a confirmation dialog will appear.
  • Click Next. Some optional settings will appear. Click Finish to complete.

Using PostgreSQL JDBC driver

The following Java code is a simple program to illustrate how JDBC can be used with Postgresql:

// pgVersion.java

import java.sql.*;

class pgVersion {

public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {

if(arg.length!=4) { System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password"); return; } // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver"); Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver(); DriverManager.registerDriver(driver); String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&password="+arg[3]; Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); System.out.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); conn.close(); DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver); }

}

You can run the former code in two ways:

  • Using CLASSPATH environment variable:
export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:.

javac pgVersion.java java pgVersion host database user password

Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.

  • Alternately, you can run as follows:
javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java

java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password

The output is as expected:

PostgreSQL 8.2.5 on i486-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by GCC cc (GCC) 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Ubuntu 4.1.2-16ubuntu1)

MySQL

According to this page both MySQL and PostgreSQL are good alternatives of proprietary softwares like DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL Server etc.

To install both the server and client:

sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

db4free is a great database server for tryout different things remotely. If you want to use this site, then you do not have to install MySQL server. Just install the client, documentation and php or jdbc connectivity.

IBM DB2

Visit here for software available from IBM. According to this page, DB2 can be installed on ubuntu.

Download

To download DB2 trial visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Data Server trial. Then you have to sign in (create an account if not already created) in order to download. Choose either of the following:

  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on AMD64 and Intel(R) EM64T systems (x64)
  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on System z

Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Alternately, visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Express-C. Then choose DB2 Express-C 9.5 for Linux and click continue. Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally select either of the following:

  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture
  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 64-bit architecture

click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Installing DB2

I choose 'DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture' to demonstrate how to install. If you have chosen a different version, make necessary changes accordingly. Let's assume the downloaded file is on your home directory. Then do the following:

tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz

cd ~/exp sudo apt-get install libaio1 sudo ./db2setup

Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.

Uninstalling DB2

If you have installed with all default settings (as mentioned above) then just running the following commands would remove the db2 completely. In case you have changed something during installation, then make appropriate changes accordingly.

cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5

./instance/db2ilist sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1 sudo install/db2_deinstall -a cd && sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/ sudo userdel -r dasusr1 sudo userdel -r db2fenc1 sudo userdel -r db2inst1 sudo groupdel dasadm1 sudo groupdel db2fadm1 sudo groupdel db2iadm1

Before running those commands, please make sure:

  • Make sure, db2 is not running.
  • Identify DB2 installation directory (E.g /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5)
  • Identify DB2 instances (using db2ilist command, see the second command)
  • Drop each and every instances (using db2idrop command, third command)
  • If you have other IBM softwares in /opt/ibm then remove only /opt/ibm/db2 directory.
  • Delete user and group accounts that you have created for db2.

Oracle database

A problem might occur if your swap space is less than 1 GB. In that case you have to do the following:

  • Turn off the swap space. (run 'man swapoff' for help)
  • Resize the swap partition. (run 'man fdisk' and 'man cfdisk' for help)
  • Restart the system. (not mandatory, but recommended)
  • Edit the /etc/fstab file to update the UUID of the swap partition. ([[|#How_to_find_the_UUID_of_a_device]])
  • Turn on the swap space. (run 'man swapon' for help)

SSH

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu host

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]

The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]].

In this example:

Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.2 username is a valid user on the remote host

ssh [email protected]

You can tunnel to a URL as well:

ssh [email protected]

If your LAN uses a dynamic IP to connect to the Internet, you can use a Dynamic IP service (such as DynDNS) to assign a static URL to your LAN (foobar.dyndns.org, for example). An SSH request over the Internet to your URL (e.g. foobar.dyndns.org) would then be routed by the DynDNS service to your modem/router. Your router must then be set to forward the port used for the SSH tunnel to your host machine on the LAN. (SSH tunnels generally occur by default over port 22, but it can be changed (see below)).

For some humor: Read Etymology of foobar. You can explicitly select the port number (instead of port 22) for the SSH tunnel:

ssh [email protected]:11022

However, if you do this, the host SSH server must be listening on the same port (port 11022 in the example). The port to listen to can be set in the ssdh_config file of the OpenSSH server (provided in Ubuntu) on your host. Also, your router must be configured to forward port 11022 to your OpenSSH host.

How to change SSH Server Port Number

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]]

Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config for editing

gksu gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Look for the line

# What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for

Port 22

Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

Using SSH to Port Forward

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]].
  • The format of the client command to create an SSH tunnel to an OpenSSH host listening on the default port 22 is:
ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

An example is:

ssh -L 6669:94.92.10.15:6667 foowho

In this example, local port 6669 on the local client computer is tunneled by encrypted SSH over the default port 22 to the router at 94.92.10.15. The router must be set up to forward port 22 to whatever the internal LAN IP (such as 192.168.0.56) of the SSH host is. The host is running OpenSSH (ssdh service) and is set to listen to port 22. It then routes the incoming data to the host port 6667, where presumably some other program is waiting for data. foowho has an account on the host running the OpenSSH server.

SSH tunnels can also be established using URLs and even alternate ports. An example is:

ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho -p 11022

In this example, local port 5900 on the client is forwarded through an SSH tunnel on port 11022 to foobar.dyndns.org. The DNS service translates foobar.dyndns.org into the appropriate WAN (Internet) IP address, where the router is listening. The router is set up to forward port 11022 to the LAN machine hosting the OpenSSH server, which is listening on port 11022. It then sends the data to whatever program is running on port 5900 on the host.

  • You can forward a local port to a different port on the remote host.
Example: Make port 80 (web server/browser) on the remote host at 10.0.2.10 available locally as port 81
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 [email protected]
  • You can create secure SSH tunnels to multiple hosts using multiple ports.
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 [email protected]

Now, local port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.10, local port 82 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.20 and local port 83 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.30. In this example, user has an account on all three host machines at 10.0.2.10, 10.0.2.20, and 10.0.2.30.

  • Once port forwarding is set up by ssh, an application is directed to the SSH tunnel for port usage by using the loopback as the destination.
Example 1:
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 [email protected]
http://localhost:81 or http://127.0.0.1/:81 

will direct a web browser to use port 81 locally, which is being redirected by SSH to port 80 on the remote host at 10.0.2.10.

Example 2:
ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho

vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost

will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.

SSH Filesystem

install package: sshfs, see http://fuse.sourceforge.net/sshfs.html

sudo aptitude update

sudo aptitude install sshfs

Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.

sudo adduser <local user> fuse

(propogate new group membership: restart or open new shell, e.g., Ctrl+Alt+F1)

Create writable mount point, e.g, <mount point> = /media/remote

sudo mkdir <mount point>

sudo chgrp fuse <mount point> sudo chmod 775 <mount point>

Mount command

sshfs [<user>@]<host>:[<path>] <mount point>

Unmount command

fusermount -u <mount point>

Ubuntu 7.10 LAMP Server

If you are looking for simple LAMP Server setup in 15min including webmin installation this is for you

(This requires the server version of Gutsy Gibbon, not the standard desktop edition)

How to Install Webmin

如何安装Webmin

Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More. Webmin是一个基于浏览器管理Apache,PHP,Mysql的工具。

wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.370_all.deb


sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl

sudo passwd root (将要输入新的管理员密码)

sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.370_all.deb 

To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)

如果使用Webmin,输入以下的链接到浏览器(确保能使用权https,而不是http)

https://localhost:10000

Sun Java Application Server (Java EE)

Official documentation

Installing Application Server

Sun Java Application Server is the heart of Java EE. Download either of the following versions:

  • Java EE 5 SDK Update 3
  • Java Application Platform SDK Update 3 Beta
  • Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 (under individual download section)

Alternately you can download GlassFish application server (community maintained):

Make the download file executable and run as root by:

chmod +x Desktop/filename

sudo ./Desktop/filename

Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant

The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. Ant is also useful to automate building process.

Application Server configuration

When Java EE installs, a domain 'domain1' is automatically installed with it in $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ which is the default directory for all domains. Generally this directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) is not writable. So, as a unprivileged user you can create your own domain in your home directory.

Application Server domain settings

To create, start, stop and delete a domain in your home directory:

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain

asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain

Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.

sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain asadmin start-domain mydomain asadmin stop-domain mydomain asadmin delete-domain mydomain

If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.

asadmin start-domain

asadmin stop-domain

You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:

asadmin login --host localhost --port 4848

Deploying and un-deploying a web or ejb module is very easy. Just do the following:

asadmin deploy test1.war

asadmin deploy test2.ear

asadmin undeploy test1.war asadmin undeploy test2.ear

Application Server data Source settings

DataSource configuration can be done easily from web based administration console. Here command line method is given:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar

asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property

serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql

asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database

First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:

Context ic = new InitialContext();

DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection();

To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:

asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools

asadmin list-jdbc-resources

To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.

asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database

asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql

Tomcat 6

Installing tomcat

Tomcat can be found in universe repository but it has some drawbacks (e.g. lots of dependencies, unavailability of version 6.x, do not use Sun Java). Thus manual installation is recommended.

Download latest stable version of tomcat from here and extract it in /usr/local as root. Add "JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/" to /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/setclasspath.sh after the first occurrence of "CLASSPATH=". Make sure that sun-java6-jre is installed. Make a soft-link of /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/catalina.sh as /usr/local/bin/tomcat to access easily. Optionally you can remove .exe and .bat files and edit .sh files to remove cygwin, os400 and darwin related codes.

Although not necessary, but the ant program would be useful here. You can also install its documentation.

OpenEJB Server

OpenEJB is an open source, modular, configurable, and extendable EJB Container System and EJB Server. Visit here to see the installation instructions for OpenEJB under Tomcat 6.

Using tomcat with NetBeans

You have to make the configuration files readable because Netbeans generally do not run with administrative privilege. To use Tomcat with with NetBeans, you have to set a user with manager role. A typcal $CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml file would look like:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>

<tomcat-users>

<role rolename="admin"/>

<role rolename="manager"/> <role rolename="tomcat"/> <user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/> <user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/> <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>

</tomcat-users>

Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the <tomcat-users> element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web & Java EE pack.

Configure Database Connection Pool (DBCP) of Tomcat

A database connection pool creates and manages a pool of connections to a database. Recycling and reusing already existing connections to a dB is more efficient than opening a new connection. It is still possible and valid to open and close connection for each servlet/jsp (visit [[|#Using_JDBC_driver]] for details).

Before proceeding, let's assume that $CATALINA_HOME denotes tomcat installation directory (typically: /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.0.14).

echo $CATALINA_HOME

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes

Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" version="2.5">

<resource-ref>

<description>PostgreSQL connectivity</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/postgresql</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref>

<description>

Page for testing </description> <display-name>Testing page</display-name> <servlet> <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name> <servlet-class>pgsqlVersion</servlet-class> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/pgsqlVersion</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<Context>

<Resource

name="jdbc/postgresql" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver" url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database" username="user" password="password" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/> <WatchedResource>WEB-INF/web.xml</WatchedResource> <WatchedResource>META-INF/context.xml</WatchedResource>

</Context>

Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:

import java.io.*;

import java.sql.*; import javax.sql.*; import javax.naming.*; import javax.servlet.*; public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {

public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {

try { response.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter(); Context initContext = new InitialContext(); Context envContext = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env"); DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection(); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); pw.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); } catch(Exception e) { } }

}

Create index.html and set its content:

<title>PostgreSQL datasource</title><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">





Then compile the servlet:

export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:.

javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java

Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!


Nagios Network Monitoring Server

It should be noted that this howto instructs you to build nagios from its sources, while it exists on the official repositories.

NFS Server

  • Read Linux NFS FAQ
  • Run this command for each computer to determine the IP Addresses for each one:
ifconfig

Installing NFS Server

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Reconfigure Portmap to not bind to loopback interface:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap 

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

Define which folders to share (export):

sudo nano /etc/exports

Add share (export) definitions:

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read/Write access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(rw,no_root_squash,async)

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read Only access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(ro,async)

192.168.1.0/24 above would be the clients IP Address

When finished, save changes and restart the NFS Server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Export your new configuration:

sudo exportfs -a

Installing NFS Client

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common

Mounting Manually

cd ~

mkdir temp sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp

192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address

You may need to restart NFS services:

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart

自动挂载

首先创建挂载路径:

sudo mkdir /mnt/files

然后修改配置文件:

gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

在配置文件中加上类似于下面的内容:

192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0

保存文件,然后测试一下刚才的修改:

sudo mount -a

最后,重新启动你的系统,以测试是否成功的自动挂载了。

硬件

NVidia 驱动

首先,弄清楚您清楚您是什么内核运行以下命令查看:

[email protected]:~$ uname -a 

Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux

我安装了generic的内核,所以我要安装以下的软件包:

sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic

上面的操作做完后,打开系统>系统管理>受限驱动管理器,打开驱动程序。

有时可能会遇到弹出错误对话框的情况:“包含nvidia-glx-new软件包的软件源并没有启用。”这个问题可以通过勾选'系统>系统管理>软件源中“从Internet上下载”下的复选框,然后点击“关闭”以使ubuntu重新加载软件源而解决。这样Nvidia的驱动就可以通过上面的方法启用。'

可以通过下面的方法禁用启动时显示的nvidia商标:

sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo

Wacom 平板设备

默认情况下,Wacom平板的选项是被注释掉的。输入下面的命令修改 xorg.conf 文件。

gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

去掉 "#" 以取消注释,或者替换以下三行:

InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents" 
InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents" 
InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"

保存并重新启动您的X会话,请按 CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE.


微软Intellimouse

为了确保滚轮和侧键能够被正确识别,需要将/etc/X11/xorg.conf中mouse区段修改成下面这样:

Section "InputDevice" 
 Identifier "Configured Mouse" 
 Driver "mouse" Option "CorePointer" 
 Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" 
 Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2" 
 Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" 
 Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true" 
 Option "Buttons" "7" 
 Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection 

如果你想在firefox中使用滚轮而不是侧键来滚动,设置 "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" 以及 "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".

现在你可以重启机器或者重启X(Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) 来检查你的前进/后退键在FireFox是不是工作正常。你可以在终端中用xev来测试。

Logitech Marble Mouse

To get the scrollwheel effect on Logitech trackball (Marble Mouse), change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

Section "InputDevice"

Identifier "MarbleMouse"

Driver "mouse" Option "Protocol" "auto" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Buttons" "5" Option "ButtonMapping" "1 8 3 6 7" Option "EmulateWheel" "true" Option "EmulateWheelTimeout" "300" # msec Option "EmulateWheelButton" "6" Option "YAxisMapping" "4 5"

EndSection

Make sure that you have "MarbleMouse" under the server layout section as well.

The big left and right buttons work normally (click, right click) and pressing them at the same time acts as a middle click. Holding the small left button will let you scroll up and down with the trackball. Clicking small left and right buttons will let you go back/forward in firefox.

Thanks to imjustabill and Buffalo Soldier from the Ubuntu Forum. This works well on my computer.

Logitech MX510

To have the extra buttons on your MX510 working with X, you'll have to install and configure the evdev-drivers. Open up a terminal and enter:

sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-evdev 

Now, all you have to do is configure Xorg to work with the new driver. Always remember to back up original files before altering:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Locate and replace the InputDevice section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier Configured Mouse, and replace it with:

Section "InputDevice"
  Identifier "Configured Mouse"
  Driver "evdev"
  Option "CorePointer"
  Option "Name" "Logitech MX510"
  EndSection 

Logout or kill the X session using <CTRL><ALT><BACKSPACE> and login again. This should get all of your buttons and scrollwheel up and running, and even let you navigate the webbrowser history using the thumb buttons on the side.

Disable CAPS LOCK

I like to remap mine to <Ctrl>. Just run gnome-keyboard-properties with "System > Preferences > Keyboard", click on the "Layout Options" tab and then on the arrow next to "Ctrl key position". Selecting "Make CapsLock an additional Ctrl" does the trick.

Enabling NUM LOCK at boot

The Default behavior is for the NUM LOCK key to be off; if you are on a desktop and have a keypad though, entering digits from it can be much quicker and you may wish to have it enabled for entering login password, etc. Here's how:

  • From Synaptic, download and install "numlockx," or, from the command line;
sudo apt-get install numlockx
  • To get it working, you now have to edit the appropriate startup file. First, make sure you have a working backup of the file:
sudo cp /etc/gdm/Init/Default /etc/gdm/Init/Default.bak
  • Next, modify the gdm/Init file. In terminal:
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/Init/Default
  • Scroll down to the end of the file, and above the line that says "exit 0" add the following:
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then

/usr/bin/numlockx on fi

  • Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on."

BSNL Broadband (dataone) speedup

BSNL Broadband or Dataone provides high speed (2Mbps) Internet connectivity in India. The DNS servers provided by the BSNL (61.1.96.69 and 61.1.96.71) are very slow. Instead use Either of these:

208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 or

4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or

search Google for free DNS service providers.

Citrix ICA client

The Citrix client no longer suffers from any of the previous Ubuntu version's problems of UTF8 font issues, OpenMotif depends, or flaky/broken browser integration. It just works!

  • Download the latest en.linuxx86.tar.gz (currently v10.6) from Citrix.com and save to your desktop
  • Right-click tar.gz file, and Extract Here
  • Open a Terminal
Programs > Accessories > Terminal
  • Change to the directory where we extracted the client
cd Desktop/en.linuxx86
  • Run the setup program
./setupwfc
  • Select the defaults

Now, web files from Metaframe Presentation Server, Citrix Access Gateway, etc webpages will work fine in Firefox.

Someone may wish to add an entry on how to use the client to connect to a local Citrix farm.

WINE

最新的安装说明在:WineHQ.org

    添加软件仓库密钥:

wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

    添加 apt 软件仓库:

sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list

    更新 apt 软件仓库:

sudo apt-get update

安装 WINE:

sudo apt-get install wine

 所有程序菜单将出现在 Wine 菜单下,或者直接双击一个 Windows/DOS 可执行文件。

安装Internet Explorer 6 for Wine

不推荐使用 IE6 做日常应用,但是一些 Windows 软件包(通过 Wine 安装的)要求 IE6 已经被完整安装。进一步说,IE 6 对于想检验他们自己做的网页在 IE6 上的显示效果的开发者来说有用。

安装 IE6 所必须的 cabextract 可以从新利得软件包管理器中获取(或者直接在终端输入 apt-get install cabextract)。

从IEs4Linux网站下载并运行IEs4Linux安装脚本: 

wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz

tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz cd ies4linux-* ./ies4linux

这里有一个测试版的安装http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads
如果您打算安装 IE 7,对于 Amd64 用户来说可能导致无法使用。但是IE6 是不区分 amd64 或i386的。

接受所有的默认安装设置。

Wine-Doors

Wine-Doors 在 [4] 打包了可以通过 Wine 运行的 Windows 下的软件。这些软件包的列表其中包括了 Internet Explorer 6。

Debian/Ubuntu 软件包 (单击安装) 可以在此处下载

VMWare Server

直到 Ubuntu 商业软件仓库收录了 VMWare Server,您可以根据 'How To' 上讲到的来从源代码编译。

VMWare 工具

如果您打算在您的 Ubuntu Gusty 上安装 VMware tools,请遵循以下步骤:

若使其正常使用 USB 驱动设备,请仔细阅读下面的 bug 说明:https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5

如何安装博通(BoardCom)无限上网驱动

  • 这个可以用于我的32位版 Kubuntu 7.10 但是它有很多种方法实现
  • 首先,确认您的硬件型号是正确的
lspci | grep Broadcom
  • 其输出应符合如下
02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
  • 然后,您就可以添加新的软件仓库了
gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • 在编辑器中加入
deb http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
  • 接下来执行下面内容来增加一个密钥
wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • 回到终端
sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware

  • 此时尽管去按 yes,让他安装,然后重启!感谢 Pete 和 7.04 向导提供。

要求

如果您对这份指南的一部分有您的要求或改进方案,请在 Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy 中写下。

问题解决

将您在使用 Gusty 时遭遇的问题贴在这里 。他们将想办法解决它,或者可以将它用于解决其他的类似毛病。

OpenOffice 拼写检查问题

这个问题不是一个漏洞。一部分语言没有内置拼写检查的支持。像其他人一样,举个例子,"英文 (印度)" 就不支持拼写检查,但是"英文 (美国)" 却支持。直接找到:

工具 -> 选项 -> 语言设置 -> 语言

然后选择一个名称前面带有对钩的西方语种,就是这样。

如果您想添加某种语言的拼写检查功能, 安装名为 myspell-<语言> 的软件包,其中 <语言> 替换为您打算安装的语言缩写,例如:

sudo apt-get install myspell-fr 

这样就可以安装法语词典了。

Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout

SCIM might not work properly under Gutsy Gibbon, although works fine under Feisty Fawn. Until the problem is fixed, you can use the alternative method to switch keyboard layout.

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Language Support and install the languages you want to use.
  • Open System -> Preferences -> Keyboard and add the layout that you want to use from Layouts tab.
  • Right click on the free space of upper panel and select "Add to panel...". Add Keyboard Indicator.

Fix Slow boot/faulty splash screen

if your system is booting slowly or your ubuntu splash screen is not being displayed it could be that Usplash has created the splash screen incorrectly

1) edit /boot/grub/menu.lst

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

At the very end of the kernel line after "splash" , add

"vga=***" 

replace *** with the code from the table below that corresponds with the resolution and colour setting you are using

Screen 640x480 800x600 1024x768 1280x1024 1600x1200
Colors
256 769 771 773 775 796
32,768 784 787 790 793 797
65,536 785 788 791 794 798
16.8M 786 789 792 795 799

the line should look something like this

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.22-14-generic root=UUID=20fd9912-6383-4860-9cd8-88a11909d715 ro quiet splash vga=791

Save that file, close it,

2) edit /etc/usplash.conf

sudo gedit /etc/usplash.conf

change the resolution to the one you set in the previous step save and close

3) rebuild the bootsplash screen

sudo update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`

This rebuilds the image that Grub uses to start the system.

4) reboot

Logout problem

Some users have have faced a hangout problem when whey press the quit button. Currently the following symptom and work-around have been noticed:

  • Press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to kill X-Window and show the GDM screen.
  • gnome-power-manager service should be on. You can enable it from System->Preferences->Sessions.
  • Wait for 1 minute. The quit window will appear. (the logout problem will vanish for some times).
  • For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.

问题&提示

在这里加入Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Trick中已列出的问题是无意义的,所以,请您只添加新的问题进来。

 Ubuntu"死机“时怎么办

有无数种原因可能导致系统崩溃,可能是程序的bug,可能是内存管理的问题,或者其它任何原因。当你的计算机停止响应时,不要总想着去按“电源”键关机!在你强行关掉电源前试试以下几种简单的方法:


  1. 计算机停止响应了吗?先试着按<Ctrl><Alt><F1>键来进入虚拟终端。这样计算机仍在你掌控中,你可以停掉导致系统无响应的程序。
  2. 如果你不能进入虚拟终端,再试试重启图形界面吧,方法是<Ctrl><Alt><backspace>。所有在这个图形界面中打开的应用程序都将被关闭,登录界面出现,你可以重获系统控制权。
  3. 如果前面两个都失败了,我们重启吧。最安全的做法就是按<Ctrl><Alt><Delete>。电脑将运行关机脚本,安全重启。
  4. 如果由于关机脚本的问题导致方法3失败,那么就重新按下3中所说那三个键。当然这样是不安全的,因为系统可能不会unmount掉文件系统。
  5. 必杀技:如果试了以上方法都无效,有一条小秘决,别人我不告诉他。其实系统核心有一条小小的用户空间通信管道保持畅通,在你的核心崩溃时(这个方法我还没试过,谁去试试?)你可以通过以下方法安全重启。这个方法是安全的,但切记只有所有尝试失败後再这样做!按下<Ctrl><Alt><PrtScrn/SysRq>键,别放开,然後输入以下字母(确保按顺序)REISUB。系统会unmount掉mount的所有本地文件系统,安全关机。什么?这个字母序列很难忘?把它倒过来读读“busier"。

如何找到一个驱动器的UUID代号

  • 初于什么原因,如果你打算修改分区表或者在计算机上增加一个硬盘驱动器,这将对你非常有用。
  • 当他们(驱动器)的 UUID 改变时,在启动中将遇到错误。
  • 使用<Ctrl>-D 将允许勉强继续启动,但是想要修复这个问题,你需要:

-> 打开 fstab 文件:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

-> 在另一个终端中运行如下命令:

ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/ 

-> 或者,也可以输入下面这个命令来列出驱动器:

blkid
  • 在 fstab 中,带有 UUID 的部分或其它相关不相符的地方都要依次更正。最简单的方法,你可以复制、粘贴它们。<译者注:如果根目录没有修改,直接用的 /dev+下面的设备名称来代替 UUID>
  • 有的其它的地方也应该相应的修改,好比说装载点、文件系统格式(ext2, ext3, ntfs...等等) , 选项, dump,跳过...等等。

更多关于如何修改编辑 fstab 的文章点击此处:

  • 如果要列出指定设备的 UUID,输入:
sudo vol_id -u device
  • 其中 device 可能是 /dev/sdxy.

例:sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1

Enable vim syntax highlighting

The source of vi/vim command is vim-tiny package which does not support syntax highlighting. Install vim:

sudo apt-get install vim

Then open /etc/vim/vimrc and uncomment syntax on

Replace

"syntax on

With

syntax on

HAL

If you have problem failed to initialize HAL, and devices such as card reader,or shutdown problem, power meter doesn´t appear..please find this line in /etc/init.d/rc

sudo vim /etc/init.d/rc find this line : CONCURRENCY=shell

To fix this:

sudo nautilus


Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder rc2.d rename s12hal to s13hal

the problem was HAL loading before DBUS and causing such error. this should fiz the problem, if not

sudo gedit /etc/init.d/rc

and turn CONCURRENCY=shell to CONCURRENCY=none

Enable Sirius Internet Radio for Firefox

Launch the player from www.sirius.com. After authenticating, you will now be able to select which stream to play. Selecting the stream will launch vlc.

Remove unwanted language/locale files

sudo apt-get install localepurge

sudo localepurge

登录後自动运行 pidgin

打开“系统 -> 首选项 -> 会话”。单击“添加”按钮。在弹出的对话框中填写名称“Pidgin”,命令“/usr/bin/pidgin”。单击“确定”,然後保证添加的这一行被勾选上即可。

sudo/gksu without password

EDITOR=gedit gksu visudo

Find "Defaults !lecture,tty_tickets,!fqdn" and replace by "Defaults timestamp_timeout=-1".

Speed-up Ubuntu

Open System -> Preferences -> Sessions and remove the startup programs that you do not need (e.g. Bluetooth Manager, Evolution Alarm Notifier, Restricted Driver Manager, Tracker, User folders update, Visual).

Open System -> Preferences -> Appearance and make Visual Effects to None.

Open System -> Administration -> Services and disable the services that you do not need (e.g. alsa-utils, bluetooth, brltty, hdparm, acpid, apmd, screen).

How to change the USplash Screen on startup/shutdown

When you add another Desktop Environment, the USplash screen may change (saying Kubuntu instead of Ubuntu). If you want to change it, do the following:

sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so

This will bring up a list of installed USplash screens. Type the number that corresponds to the one you want and press Enter. Then type:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure usplash

Then reboot.

Guide Development

Note: This section was taken from the Feisty Guide and edited appropriately.

Place ideas here to increase the look and performance of this guide.

  • Add a new section for Gnome Themes from http://art.gnome.org and KDE Themes from http://www.kde-look.org/.
  • Have entries under their headings in alphabetical order.
  • Try to keep the guide neat and clutter free.
  • Possible "Short Version" Table of contents without each "How to".
  • Add a [top] link to the end of each article.
  • If possible, include a 'find/search' function to easily access queries.
    • This can be done in Firefox with <Ctrl>-F.
  • instead of 'apt-get install', there could be the new Gutsy apturl feature for easier installation of software