个人工具

“Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh”的版本间的差异

来自Ubuntu中文

跳转至: 导航, 搜索
第472行: 第472行:
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/amor-a-creature-for-your-desktop.html AMOR - a creature for your desktop]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/amor-a-creature-for-your-desktop.html AMOR - a creature for your desktop]
 +
 +
==== AMOR - 桌面工具 ====
 +
 +
如果你想给你的 ubuntu 桌面添加点有趣的小工具:
 +
 +
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/amor-a-creature-for-your-desktop.html AMOR - 桌面工具]
  
 
==== Advanced Desktop Effects (Compiz Fusion) ====
 
==== Advanced Desktop Effects (Compiz Fusion) ====

2008年1月24日 (四) 08:59的版本

目录

Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)

Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, the successor of Feisty Fawn was released on Oct 18th, 2007. Please help test and perfect this guide. Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, Feisty Fawn 的后续版本,于 2007 年 10 月 18 日已经发布。请帮忙测试和完善这份指南

This guide was started by Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). It is now being maintained by the Linux Center of University of Latvia, and everyone else who is willing to contribute.

这份指南由 Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). 发起。现在它由Latvia 大学Linux 中心和所有愿意贡献的其他人们共同维护。

This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.

这份手册可以在官方论坛 ubuntuforums.org 的UbuntuGuide.org 论坛 讨论。加入讨论吧。

前言

关于 Gutsy

  • On October 18, 2007 Ubuntu 7.10 was released.
  • It was code named Gutsy Gibbon and is the successor to Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn (Feisty+1 or the very next release after Feisty)
  • Gutsy will be supported for 18 months on both desktops and servers.
  • Users requiring a longer support lifetime on servers may choose to continue using Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, with security support until 2011, rather than upgrade to or install 7.10.
  • 2007 年 10 月 18 日,Ubuntu 7.10 发布。
  • 它被命名为 Gutsy Gibbon,它是 Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn 的后续版本(Feisty +1 或紧接 Feisty 之后发布的版本)
  • Gutsy 将在桌面和服务器版本上提供 18 个月的支持
  • 要求更长期服务器版本支持的用户可以选择 Ubuntu 6.06 LTS ,而不是更新到 7.10, 因为 6.06 的安全支持直到 2011 年。

如何找出您正在使用的 Ubuntu 版本

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • In Gutsy goto System -> Administration -> System Monitor -> System Tab

or on all versions and derivatives of Ubuntu use this command:

lsb_release -a
  • 读一下 [[|#General Notes]]
  • 在 Gutsy 中,到系统->管理->系统监视器->系统标示 查看

或者在所有的 Ubuntu 版本和衍生版本中,使用这个命令:

lsb_release -a

Ubuntu 的更新的版本

  • Ubuntu uses a six month release cycle
  • These releases occur in April and October
  • The next release is scheduled for April 24, 2008 and will be Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron) which is Gutsy+1.
  • Hardy Heron will be a LTS (Long Term Support) release and will be supported with security updates for five years on the server and three years on the desktop.
  • Ubuntu 采用 6 个月的发行周期
  • 一般发布在 4 月和 10 月
  • 下一次的发布计划在 2008 年 4 月 24 日,并命名为 Ubuntu 8.04(Hardy Heron)即 Gutsy+1。
  • Hardy Heron 将是 LTS(长期支持)版本,将提供 5 年的服务器版本安全支持和 3 年的桌面版本支持。

Ubuntu 的老版本

If you are using an outdated version of Ubuntu, you should consider updating it to Gutsy. There have been considerable improvements to this version, and the updater used in Gutsy will ease transitions to future versions. If you are in a production environment, or if everything works perfectly for you, you may wish to stay with a Long-Term Support (LTS) version.

如果您试用一个 Ubuntu 的过时的版本,您应该考虑将其升级到 Gutsy。 这个版本有相当多的改进,并且和将来的版本更加容易整合。如果您使用其作为一个生产环境,或您认为所有的事情都很完美,您可以考虑仍然使用长期支持版本(LTS)。

  • Dapper is latest LTS and the next version Gutsy+1 will be the next LTS released.
  • Dapper 是最新的 LTS 版本,Gutsy+1 的新版本将是下一个 LTS 版本。

General Notes

  1. 这是一个非官方的 Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) 初学者向导. 它与 Ubuntu和 Canonical 公司都没有关系.
  2. 这个向导发自于官方论坛(UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org).欢迎参与讨论。 
  3. 如果你看到蓝色方框,这意味着你需要在终端模式中执行这些命令(应用程序 -〉附件 -〉终端)或者按照相应说明执行方框中的内容。
  4. 在终端模式,你也可以用“复制”“粘贴”来代替用键盘键入命令,这样往往可以有效的防止输入错误。(Ctrl+c=复制,Shift+Insert=粘贴)
  5. "sudo" 表示 "substitute user do''. sudo 需要你提供密码(密码不会在终端中回显). 你可以利用sudo代替另一个用户在计算机上操作-比如  sudo -u peter <命令> 将会以peter的身份在计算机上执行此命令。
  6. 欲获得更多关于命令的信息,请参阅手册页。例如,在终端中输入“man sudo”可以获得与sudo相关的信息。
  7. 你也可以使用更新管理器来代替"apt-get"(系统-系统管理-更新管理器)
  8. "apt-get"和"wget"都需要网络连接来下载安装和更新程序
  9. 所以涉及 "aptitude"的选项都可以用"apt-get"替代.当然可以继续使用"aptitude",但是这可能会造成一些依赖性上的问题。
  10. 可以点击右键选择“链接另存为”来下载文件,但必须保证文件的名字和拓展名都是正确的
  11. 如果你有意向帮助Ubuntu本土化,请访问 https://launchpad.net/
  12. 善待他人的理念永远和Ubuntu一起伴随着你...
  13. 如果使用的是64位的版本,请在“i386”用“amd64”代替

外部链接申明

这份指南中的很多部分都有外部链接,这可以使这份指南更加精悍,然而Ubuntugide.org不能保证每个链接都是有效的。我们不能对本指南以外的一些拓展链接负责,如果你发现哪个链接是无效的,那请在此处报告问题,或者为我们修正那些指向错误的外部链接。因为有你,我们才能做的更加完美。

关于链接出错

如果您发现某个链接是错误的或者无法找到相关信息,那请将此连接贴到此处,包括您是在哪段里找到此链接的。谢谢合作!

关于Ubuntu以及官方的一些相关内容

Ubuntu 7.10的相关指导


Ubuntu截图

Ubuntu 7.10 截图展示 

Kubuntu 7.10的相关指导

Kubuntu 截图

Kubuntu 7.10 截图图库

Xubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Xubuntu Screenshots

Xubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Edubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Offical Edubuntu Website Wikipedia: Edubuntu

Gobuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Wikipedia: Gobuntu

翻译和本地化

Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese and most European languages have better support in Ubuntu than any other languages. If your language do not have enough support, then you can help Ubuntu by translating it in your preferred language. To translate, visit https://translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu and login (register if not already registered). Choose your preferred language and start translating.

Ubuntu对中文,日文,葡萄牙文及其它的欧洲语言的支持比对其它语言的支持要好。如果你的语言没有足够的支持的话,那么您可以帮助Ubuntu翻译成你喜欢的语言。翻译请访问 translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu 并登录(如果没有注册的话请先注册)。选择你喜欢的语言并开始翻译。

更新升级和安装软件

怎样加入新的软件仓库

Work in Progress

使用菜单

  • Choose distribution-friendly repositories. These are part of the Ubuntu distribution system. This is the recommended method.
  • 选择版本友好的软件仓库。这是Ubuntu发行系统的一部分。这是推荐的方法。
System-->Administration-->Software Sources
系统-->管理-->软件源

Check the repositories you think you will need (main, universe, restricted, multiverse). You probably won't need the 'sources' repository.

检查你认为你将要用到的软件仓库(main, universe, restricted, multiverse)。你可能不需要源码软件仓库。

  • Add any third-party repositories. Such repositories are not monitored in any way. Some are quite popular, however. Use any third-party repository at your own risk.
  • 增加第三方软件仓库。这些软件仓库不会被监视,然而,有些十分流行。使用第三方软件仓库会增加你的风险。
System-->Administration-->Software Sources-->Third-party software-->Add
系统-->管理-->软件源-->第三方软件-->加入

Add the name of your repository. In this example, we will use Medibuntu, a popular third-party repository not affiliated with Ubuntu in any way.

为你的软件仓库命名。在这个例子中,我们将要用Medibuntu,一个十分流行但是没有被Ubuntu接纳的软件仓库。

APT line: deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • Download any needed gpg keys and add them to the keylist. This key verifies the repository to your system. The Medibuntu repository (not affiliated with Ubuntu) example is shown:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

手动方法

  • Create a backup of your current list of sources.
  • 备份你现有的软件源列表
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • Open the list of sources in a text editor
  • 用一个文本编辑器打开软件源列表

Ubuntu users:

Ubuntu用户:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
  • 用下面的行复盖所有
To use your local mirror you can add "cc." before archive.ubuntu.com (cc = your country code)
e.g. deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

    1. Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
    2. distribution.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted

    1. Universe

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe

    1. Multiverse

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse

    1. Backports

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

    1. Canonical Partner Repository

deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse

    1. PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)

deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free

  • Save the edited file
  • 保存编辑好的文件
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

sudo apt-get update

怎样从Feisty 升级到 Gutsy

如何编辑自动更新

  • 从菜单打开自动更新:
系统-->管理-->软件源-->更新

选定重要安全更新和建议安全更新以及其他需要的更新。选取定期更新。

如何手动升级 Ubuntu

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
  • 查阅[[|#General Notes]]
  • 查阅[[|#How to add extra repositories]]
  • From the command line:
  • 进入命令行:

use http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ page to generate the /etc/apt/sources.list file

使用http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ page to generate the /etc/apt/sources.list 文件

take a backup of your existing /etc/apt/sources.list file

备份现有的/etc/apt/sources.list文件

create a new /etc/apt/sources.list file from the generated page available on the browser

根椐浏览器当前页面内容,创建新的/etc/apt/sources.list 文件

now run the following commands

运行下面的命令

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get upgrade sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

  • From the menu:
  • 进入主菜单:
System -> Administration -> Update Manager
系统 ->系统管理 -&gt:升级管理器

添加应用程序

Miscellaneous Applications

The application in this section need a home. If Editors have the time, please place these apps in an appropriate category. If the category doesn't exist then make it. Destroy this message when complete. Thanks. --KrazyPenguin 06:16, 27 October 2007 (EEST)

热线 - Ubuntu的图形化终端

If you want graphical terminal for Ubuntu check this Very Useful

如果你想要一个Ubuntu的图形化终端,这个非常有用

如何在ubuntu下安装 Epiphany网页浏览器

If you want to How to install Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu follow this procedure

如果你想知道如何在ubuntu中安装Epiphany网页浏览器请留意下面的内容

Midori - Ubuntu下的一个轻量级网页浏览器

If you want to How to install Midori web browser in Ubuntu follow this procedure

如果你想知道如何在ubuntu中安装Midori网页浏览器请留意下面的内容

apturl - protocol handler in Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon

If you want to install ubuntu package from web browser here is simple tool

如果你想知道如何用网页浏览器ubuntu软件包,这里有简单的工具

sysvconfig - init脚本配置实用工具

sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links,service command in ubuntu

sysvconfig - Ubuntu的init脚本、服务配置实用工具命令

如何在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent

如果你想在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent下面的东西对你有用

aMSN使用

一键挂载/卸载ISO镜像

启动管理器

StartUp Manager - change settings in Grub, Grub2 and Usplash

启动管理器 -GRUB、GRUB2和Usplash的设置

Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386

首先

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

然後

wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update

接着我们安装上阅读器及其插件

sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript

同样,你可以安装上Firefox的插件

sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread

享用Adobe Reader

OpenOffice 插件

用Ubuntu下的OpenOffice打开.docx文件(其它的发行版本可能也可行)

首先我们需要下载转换工具,它可以从这里下载> [1] 下载"odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm"

如果你还没有安装alien的话,现在把它装上

sudo apt-get install alien

接着转换它的包格式,我们不想让它转换为.deb包,所以我们使用-ct的命令参数,而不是-k,命令参数-ct将其转换为.tgz包

sudo alien -ct odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm

转换好後你需要将包解压缩

tar xvf odf-converter-1.0.0.tgz

现在在你的桌面上或者任何你将其解压缩的地方都会有3个文件夹

运行

sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/program/OdfConverter /usr/lib/openoffice/program/
sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter/MOOXFilter_cpp.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter
sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types/MOOXTypeDetection.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types

Then you are done, you can now open and edit .docx files ONLY I will post the others when I find them.

在Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy)上安装"odf converter"还有另一种方法,只需如下简单的3步:

(首先确保你拥有root权限,在终端下,输入sudo su -并在提示後输入你的密码)

第一步: echo "deb http://ubuntu.org.ua/ getdeb/" >>/etc/apt/sources.list

第二步: apt-get update

第三步: apt-get install odf-converter

我试了以上3步并让它成功在我机器上运行了起来,大家可以试试,以便让我知道是否会有人用出问题来。

 

Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Program (Gramps)

GRAMPS, the Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System, is an Open Source genealogy program written in Python, using the GTK/GNOME interface. GRAMPS has the ability to import GEDCOM files that are used in such programs as FamilyTree Maker for Windows and can produce reports in various formats such as the popular ABIWord and OpenOffice.org formats as well as HTML and PDF.

sudo apt-get install gramps

桌面

Howto Tweak Ubuntu System

If you want to tweak ubuntu check this

怎样优化Ubuntu系统

AMOR - a creature for your desktop

If you want to add some fun to your ubuntu desktop this is for you

AMOR - 桌面工具

如果你想给你的 ubuntu 桌面添加点有趣的小工具:

Advanced Desktop Effects (Compiz Fusion)

Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon comes shipped with Compiz Fusion pre-installed, which means less tinkering with sensitive configuration files. For most part, Compiz needs proprietary drivers for your graphics card to work properly, so make sure you install those if needed.

To enable desktop effects, turn them on by navigating your GNOME-menu to System > Preferences > Appearance. Under the tab Visual Effects you'll find three settings; None, Normal and Extra. To turn Compiz on, choose one of the two latter.

If you wish to customize your Compiz options and plugins, such as animations and Desktop Cube, first install the configuration tool:

sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager 

Then either choose the now available Custom and Preferences from the above Visual Effects menu, or start the settings manager via the menu System > Preferences > Advanced Desktop Effects Settings. You can also start the application from the terminal or run dialog (ALT + F2), using the command ccsm.

ATI users and Compiz

Some ATI cards don't need their proprietary drivers to work with Compiz as the open-sourced driver (radeon) also has support for 3D acceleration. However, the open-sourced driver isn't as fast as the closed-sourced (fglrx) one, so if you need the proprietary one you'll have to tinker around in the terminal a little.


1. After you've installed the driver, either through the proprietary manager or directly from ATI's site, you'll have to setup the Xorg configuration file to work with your new driver. Always remember to back up the original file before altering, in case something goes wrong. Open up a terminal and enter:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf

This will disable the default radeon driver and replace it with ATI's own.


2. Now, let's tell Compiz not to care about drivers that are blacklisted:

echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" >> $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager

Alternatively, you could whitelist the driver, which is a much prettier solution. Run this command to edit the Compiz startup-script:

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz

Search for Driver whitelist and add fglrx to the end of the line, like this:

# Driver whitelist
WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"


3. Reboot your computer, login and enable Compiz as mentioned above et voilà! Behold Compiz and ATI hugging.

Live system monitoring

sudo apt-get install netspeed

Right click on the free area of the upper panel and select "Add to Panel...". Add "System Monitor" and "Network Monitor". Right Click on System Monitor and select Preferences. Add the monitor resources that you want to monitor.

Desktop session recording

It is possible to record the whole desktop session along with mouse pointer and sound system. It is a very useful tool for video screenshot as ordinary still picture screenshots generated by pressing Print Screen cannot demonstrate everything. Three applications that can do this for you are Istanbul, Wink and gtk-recordMyDesktop.

Istanbul
sudo apt-get install istanbul
Wink
sudo apt-get install wink
gtk-recordMyDesktop
sudo apt-get install gtk-recordmydesktop

International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution)

To switch to the new international clock applet download it from Here then install it with dpkg.

Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:

>Add to panel...>Miscellaneous>International Clock>Add

You got it.

Add World Map and choose World locations using its Preferences menu

备份

Ubuntu Backup Options If you want to backup your Ubuntu Desktop Use Sbackup

rdiff-backup Use rdiff-backup ubuntu

游戏

Frozen Bubble

To install Frozen Bubble simply run:

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the package.

How to solve Sudoku

There is a simple Perl script for solving gnome-sudoku. It does not support trial-and-error.

Super Nintendo Emulator (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744

ZSNES 1.51 is included in the Official Gutsy i386 repos. However, there is no official AMD64 version, and the i386 version is known to have issues in Gutsy (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=571666). There is a workaround available for i386 users who are experiencing this error (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=3604026&postcount=22).

  • Add a 3rd Party Repository
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • Install using one of the lines below
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #for amd64 users

sudo apt-get install zsnes #for everyone else

  • Applications > Games > zsnes or zsnes32

Playstation Emulator (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097

  • Add a 3rd Party Repository
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • Install using one of the lines below
sudo apt-get install psx32 #for amd64 users

sudo apt-get install psx #for everyone else

  • Applications > Games > pSX or pSX32

KDE games

To install the games from KDE 3 (recommended for Kubuntu users), install the package kdegames. This can be done with:

sudo apt-get install kdegames

UrbanTerror 4.0

  • UrbanTerror 4.0 is a Multi-player First Person Shooter. The Game uses the open source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free to use servers for multi-player functionality.

More information can be found at UrbanTerror

  • After downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the script executable with the following command:
sudo chmod +x urt40-linux-installer.sh
  • Now double click on the script to execute and follow the directions
  • The install will take awhile as the script executes a download of the necessary files which are about 541MB
  • After the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root)

This easy install script is courtesy of Nexu from the UrbanTerror Forums.

CD/DVD

How to rip a DVD video

dvd::rip is a full featured DVD copy program written in Perl. It provides an easy to use but feature-rich Gtk+ GUI to control almost all aspects of the ripping and transcoding process. It uses the widely known video processing swissknife transcode and many other Open Source tools.

sudo apt-get install dvdrip

How to burn video DVD

dvdauthor is a program that will generate a DVD movie from a valid mpeg2 stream that should play when you put it in a DVD player.

sudo apt-get install dvdauthor

How to burn a CD/DVD

nautilus-cd-burner is a basic and pre-installed program to write a CD or DVD. Serpentine is a pre-installed audio CD creator program. Serpentine can convert flac and mp3 on the fly, when making audio cds. nerolinux is a non-free CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD recorder. k3b is a great CD/DVD writing tool for KDE (ideal for Kubuntu users). But if you are looking for GTK/Gnome alternatives, then brasero, cdw/gcdw, gcdmaster, graveman and gnomebaker might impress you.

dvdisaster provides a margin of safety against data loss on CD and DVD media caused by scratches or aging media. It creates error correction data which is used to recover unreadable sectors if the disc becomes damaged at a later time.

互联网

Browser Plug-ins

Ubuntu automatically installs plug-ins required to browse a site in Firefox. But if you want to install plug-ins run the following in Terminal:

For Java plug-in:

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin

For Flash plug-in:

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

Or if you want to support the open source flash plugin:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash

For VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc

For MPlayer plug-in (automatically installs MPlayer also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer

For Real player plug-in (automatically installs helix-player):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player

For kaffeine plug-in (automatically installs kaffeine also):

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla

For image-zoom plug-in (to zoom images in a page):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom

For adblock plug-in (to block ads in a web page):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock

Gutsy includes the option to add extensions to Firefox through the Ubuntu repositories. The option to add these extensions is included by default. To see and add Ubuntu Add-ons:

  • In Firefox, Go to Tools > Add-ons
  • Click "Get Ubuntu Addons"
  • To see all available add-ons, click the list next to "Show:" and choose "All Available Applications"
  • Choose whichever add-ons you want, and click "Apply Changes"
  • You can see which add-ons you've installed in the normal Firefox add-on box.

(Note: All Ubuntu add-ons are also available through the Synaptic package manager.)

Shockwave

There is no version of Shockwave for Ubuntu/Linux but WINE can be used to run it. This method will result in 2 Firefox Browsers installed on the computer. Only use the WINE version when using a website that requires it. The native version of Firefox will give better computer performance, so it should used in all other occurrences.

  • Install WINE
  • Download and install Firefox for Windows
  • Download and install Shockwave for Windows

Download Manager (Downloader for X)

To install Downloader for X simply run:

sudo apt-get install d4x

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "d4x" package.

FTP client (FileZilla)

FileZilla is a powerful FTP client that came from windows enviroment. Reaching its third version it became cross-platform and is available through the Ubuntu Gutsy Repositories.

To install FileZilla FTP client simply run:

sudo apt-get install filezilla

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "filezilla" package.

Configuring Evolution for Gmail

Visit http://mail.google.com/mail/ and click settings (should be in top right corner). Select Forwarding and POP/IMAP.

  • If you want to use POP, select either "Enable POP for all mail (even mail that's already been downloaded)" or "Enable POP only for mail that arrives from now on".
  • If you want to use IMAP, select "Enable IMAP".

Save changes.

Open Evolution from Applications -> Internet -> Evolution Mail. If no mail account has been created before, a mail account setup wizard will automatically be opened. Otherwise open it from Edit -> preferences -> Mail Accounts -> Add. Click Forward. Enter your email address for Gmail (including @gmail.com). Click Forward.

  • If you have enabled POP from Gmail set "Server Type" to POP, "Server" to pop.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".
  • If you have enabled IMAP from Gmail, set "Server Type" to IMAP, "Server" to imap.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".

Click Forward. Click Forward. Set "Server" to smtp.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption". Click Forward. Click Forward. Click Apply.

Note that IMAP support for GMAIL is being rolled-out currently (Oct. 2007) but is not available to everyone with a GMAIL account yet. So use POP until IMAP is available for every user.

SwiftFox

Swiftfox is the Firefox web browser, but built with optimizations to increase speed on specific CPU types. It is compatible with all Firefox extensions and themes, and uses the same settings location as Firefox, so you can use both transparently.

Instructions from getswiftfox.com

  • Add the Swiftfox repository
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add this line at the bottom
deb http://getswiftfox.com/builds/debian unstable non-free
  • Update apt sources
sudo apt-get update
  • Check your CPU compatibility here
  • Install your version of Swiftfox
sudo apt-get install swiftfox-pentium4
  • Run with
Programs > Internet > Swiftfox
  • There is also an [installer] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.

Azureus (Java BitTorrent client)

The simplest way to install Azureus is:

sudo apt-get install azureus 

But it has lots of dependencies. An alternate method is discussed here. Additionally you can create a file /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop containing the following lines to make it appear in the main menu:

[Desktop Entry]

Encoding=UTF-8 Type=Application Terminal=false Name=Azureus Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus Comment=Java BitTorrent client Categories=Application;Network; MimeType=application/x-bittorrent; Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png

(here it is assumed that azureus is installed in /usr/local directory)

Update: A brand-new Azureus package is now available in gutsy-backports, which is highly preferable to the version in the main repositories. It fixes many stability problems and is compiled using icedtea/Java 7. By the time you read this, it may be available in the main repositories. Therefore you might want to make sure you have the gutsy-backports repository enabled before installing azureus via apt-get.

Deluge (A lightweight BitTorrent client written in python)

If you want a client with lower memory and CPU usage than Azureus you might want to try out Deluge. However, due to stability problems with the version available in the Ubuntu repository, it's probably better to install the latest version using the handy Gutsy-specific package from the official Deluge website. To install, just click on the debian package for your version and architecture (i386 for 32-bit systems and x86_64 for 64-bit systems) and choose to run it with GDebi package installer.

DC++ client (Linuxdcpp)

  • Install:
sudo apt-get install linuxdcpp
  • Then go
Main Menu->Intenet->DC++

多媒体播放器

怎样安装 Mplayer 和 Multimedia Codecs(解码器)

   安装 mplayer 和 codecs的简单向导

  • 这里 下载 SMPlayer (MPlayer的一个很棒的前端) 然後双击安装它。 smplayer这个前端也可以在软件包管理器中安装。
  关于64位版本 Mplayer 对 wmv9 格式支持问题

    AMD64版本的Mplayer不能正确的播放wmv9格式的文件。 要播放wmv9,你需要安装32位版本的mplayer, 和所有需要的解码器.。相较于我新安装的Gutsy,我不需要额外安装它所依赖的库文件,这让配置mplayer的工作简单多了。这就是说,做完这些步骤後你就可以随时观赏wmv9的文件了。

下载  mplayer32 for Edgy 的版本 (被证明能稳定地工作) 放到临时的文件夹中。

mkdir mplayer32temp

cd mplayer32temp wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb

解开你刚才下载的这个压缩包,放到合适的地方 (按 'n'当 问你是否要为文件更换位置)

sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./

sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/ sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/

从mplayerrhq 获取最新的 win32 codecs (下面命令中是10月7日版本, 2007), 解压缩然後安装 (同样, 在问到更换位置时按'n' )

wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2

tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2 sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/

播放 wmv9 影片.(享受它)

mplayer32 foobar.wmv


怎样安装 amaroK 多媒体播放器

  • 注意: KDE 环境下, Amarok 已经默认安装 。
sudo apt-get install amarok
  • 从菜单启动:
Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK
怎样卸载 amaroK
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove amarok

怎样获得MP3文件播放时的鼠标滑过预览

sudo apt-get install mpg321

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras sudo apt-get install pulseaudio sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins

这个方法可能会破坏Skype软件的声音系统

你也能通过下面的步骤实现鼠标滑过预览:

sudo apt-get install mpg321

sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools sudo apt-get install esound sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

这样系统中的Skype会保持正常功能

怎样安装VLC媒体播放器

sudo apt-get install vlc

卸载VLC媒体播放器:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove vlc

怎样安装 Banshee 音乐管理和播放器

sudo apt-get install banshee

卸载:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee

How to encode/decode audios

There is a great command line tool, sox which not just a ordinary encoder/decoder but a good composer. Read its manual for more information.

Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output

sudo apt-get install sox

sox cannot handle Real Audio format. For that you need mplayer which converts a .rm file to a .wav file and then use sox to convert wave file to other file.

mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm

How to encode/decode videos

mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora, etc. are some video converting tools. Read their manuals for information.

sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora

How to edit audios

sudo apt-get install lmms

sudo apt-get install audacity

How to edit videos

sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video

Text-to-Speech

Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech

Programming / Web Development

Quanta Plus

(Quanta is a KDE application, but also works on GNOME.) To install Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc Web Creation Software:

sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia
Applications > Programming > Quanta Plus

Netbeans IDE

Netbeans is a platform independent IDE for Java. But it also supports C/C++, Ruby, portals and lots of other stuffs as plug-ins. At the point of writing, version 5.5.1 is the latest stable release and can be installed by:

sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5

Alternately you can download Netbeans 6.0 and install it manually. The size of the installation package varies from 11 MB to 200 MB.

Netbeans with Web & Java EE pack

If you want to use NetBeans for web development and want to integrate with Java EE, download the "Netbeans with Web & Java EE" pack. The plug-in mechanism of installing additional modules are not recommended as it installs it on user directory (~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/) rather than system-wide installation directory (/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/).

Netbeans with Web & Java EE pack comes with 2 built in runtime environments:

  • GlassFish V2 Build 58g
  • Apache Tomcat 6.0.14

Those are ideal for both development and production use. Thus you do not have to install either Sun Java Application Server of Apache Tomcat separately. Also uninstalling Netbeans will not uninstall them. You have to uninstall them separately.

But in case you want to install the servers separately, you typically have to run Netbeans as root. Alternately, you can also change the configuration files' owner/group and permissions of Tomcat and GlassFish to work with Netbeans.

Eclipse IDE

Eclipse IDE is an alternative of Netbeans IDE. Actually, it is somewhat more popular among Linux users. You can install eclipse directly from Eclipse website or can install it using apt-get:

sudo apt-get install eclipse

Anjuta IDE

Anjuta is an IDE used primarily for C/C++ development. Not as robust as other itegrated development environments. However, tt does feature some useful plugins that provide functionality that most other IDE's have. (GUI development, project wizards, etc.)

sudo apt-get install anjuta

Utilities

Compression tools

Zip, Gzip and Bzip2 are the most popular compression tools available in almost every every Linux. But of late two new compression tools available: p7zip (http://7-zip.org/), ace and rar (http://www.rarlab.com/). 7-zip is a open-source project, but rar and ace are not.

sudo apt-get install rar unrar

sudo apt-get install p7zip-full sudo apt-get install unace

Ark is the compression tool for kde, and has support for more formats including rar.

sudo apt-get install ark

Clipboard Manager (Glipper)

To install Glipper simply run:

sudo apt-get install glipper

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "glipper" package.

Password Manager (KeePassX)

KeePass is a crossplatform password manager. To install it simply run:

sudo apt-get install keepassx

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "keepassx" package.

How to fix/integrate bluetooth with nautilus

On Some systems bluetooth "Browse Device" fuction doesn't work properly.

To Fix This:

sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp

or

sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp

怎样安装 Google Earth (地球仪软件)

Google earth是一个世界地图查看器. 它可以3D的形式显示的建筑以及桥梁. 默认的时候它是显示的是静态的图片. 最新版式中包含了鸟瞰世界的功能. 点击 这里 查看更多相关的信息.

Google Earth is available in the Medibuntu Package archive. To install google-earth from Medibuntu:

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update sudo aptitude install googleearth

除此之外你还可以直接从Google下载安装程序进行安装:

下载 Google Earth到你的桌面. 打开终端并运行n:

chmod +x Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin

sudo Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin

按照说明完成安装. 卸载Google earth,执行以下命令:

sudo su

/opt/google-earth/uninstall

怎样安装 Picasa (Google 开发的照片管理工具)

Picasa 是一款帮助你立即查找、编辑和共享在你的电脑上的所有照片的软件. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:

sudo apt-get install picasa
  • 下载 自解压安装程序并按照说明配置 Google Earth.
  • 安装Windows (需要WINE支持).

==

如何安装 Google Desktop

Google Desktop (search utility) ====


Google Desktop 是一个桌面搜索应用程序,它可以让你很容易的获取你计算机和网络当中的信息.


Desktop 让搜索你自己的电子邮件、文件、音乐、照片变得如同使用Google搜索网络一样简单。你通过下面两种途径下载Google Desktop:

sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux

How to install ntop (network monitoring utility)

Ntop is a network monitoring utility. You can monitor local devices as well as devices with Netflow output (like a Cisco router). It's very easy to install too, open a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install ntop

Now that it is installed, you have to do some basic setup. Once again, in the terminal, type:

sudo ntop

You will be asked for a password, and then to confirm the password. This will be the admin password for the ntop web interface. Next, we want to install "Dot", which is a part of the "Graphviz" package:

sudo apt-get install graphviz

Now, again in the terminal type:

sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start

Thats it! ntop is running! Try browsing to http://127.0.0.1:3000 to get started. You will have to add the path to dot to the ntop configuration.

Admin -> Configure (Enter admin user/pass) -> Preferences

At the bottom add a new preference:

dot.path /usr/bin/dot

You should now have a network map for the local interface under IP -> Local -> Network Traffic Map

Visit http://www.ntop.org/ for more information.

How to install applications for study of religious texts

How to install Gnomesword (Bible study program)
  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
  • This installs the english version of the program.
sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
  • If you require other languages type:
sudo apt-cache search bible
  • Take a look at the sword-language-pack's and the sword-text's for additional languages and install as needed.

Gnomesword is found under Applications-->Accessories.

  • Under KDE, use kio-sword instead of Gnomesword:
sudo apt-get install kio-sword
How to install a Quran researching tool (Zekr)

Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Quran.

sudo wget http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/zekr.list 

wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-me-quran ttf-sil-scheherazade sudo apt-get install ttf-farsiweb flashplugin-nonfree

  • Zekr comes with extra Quran translations in Persian, Urdu, French, Russian, English, Turkish, Bosnian, Dutch packaged as zekr-quran-translations-XY where XY is the ISO code of the language. Run
apt-cache search zekr-quran-translations

in a shell to list them all. Then among the result list choose the appropriate package and install it: For example if you want to install English Quran Translations run the following command:

sudo apt-get install zekr-quran-translations-en

How to install applications for Education

How to install Mnemosyne

Mnemosyne is a sophisticated free flash-card tool which optimizes your learning process. To install the latest version in the repositories run the following command

sudo apt-get install mnemosyne

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System => Administration menu, to locate and install the mnemosyne package.

To install the latest version (the one in the repository is somewhat out of date) first install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install python python-pygame python-qt3 python-support python-xml

then download the latest source package from here:

wget http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

(correct as of 11 Nov 2007)

Decompress it:

tar -xzf mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

go to the directory

cd mnemosyne-0.9.10/

run this command to install it:

sudo python setup.py install

To create a launcher for it in your Applications Menu:

System => Preferences => Main Menu => Education (or wherever) => New Item:

Name: Mnemosyne Command: mnemosyne

安全 

怎样重设用户密码

sudo apt-get install john

sudo john /etc/shadow

怎样重设ROOT用户的密码

重启Ubuntu进入安全模式并输入:

passwd


来修ROOT用的密码

怎样创建或修改GRUB启动菜单的密码

请点击这里.

如果忘记GRUB启动菜单的密码怎样修改root用户的密码

点击 这里. To prevent this, you have to set a bios password and set hard disk as the first boot device.

服务器

Samba 服务器

怎样安装 Samba 服务器来共享文件以及文件夹

  • 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]
  • 阅读 [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

怎样添加/修改/删除网络用户

  • 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]
  • 阅读 [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
  • 要添加网络用户 
    • 阅读 [[|#How to add/edit/delete system users]]
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username

gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers

    • 将下行添加到新文件中
    •  
system_username = "network username"
    • 保存编辑过的文件
    •  
  • 修改网络用户 
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • 要删除网络用户 
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

==

如何以只读或读写权限

共享主文件夹(Authentication=Yes) ====

  • 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]
  • 阅读[[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup

gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • 找到这一行 
...
security = user

...

  • 用下面两行替换
  •  
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

  • 移除下面每
  • 行前的分号“;”(there will text in between explaining what they do):
;[homes]
comment = Home Directories;browseable = no;valid users = %S;writable = yes
    • 如果希望其他网络用户有权
    • 编辑文件夹,则修改以下行
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
  1. parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.

 ; writable = no

    • 用下面一行代替
    •  
writable = yes
  • 保存编辑过的文件
  •  
  • 阅读 [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/group

sudo chmod 777 /home/group/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following lines
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]

comment = Group Folder path = /home/group public = yes writable = no valid users = system_username1 system_username2 create mask = 0700 directory mask = 0700 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
writable = yes
  • Save the edited file
  • Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/public

sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following lines
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]

comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = yes create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
writable = yes
  • 2. Save the edited file
  • 2. Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/public

sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following line
security = share

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of /etc/samba/smb.conf (for a read-only folder)
[public]

comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = no create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
writable = yes


  • 2. Save the edited file
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

  • Read [[|#Print Server (cupsd)]]
  • Make sure your Ubuntu printers are configured properly.
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup

gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

Find the following lines
...
  1. printing = cups
  2. printcap name = cups

...

and uncomment them.
printing = cups

printcap name = cups

Restart cups server
sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.


iTunes-compatible Media server

If you want iTunes-compatible Media server in Ubuntu try this

GLPI - IT and asset Managemet Software

If you want IT and asset Managemet Software in Ubuntu try this

PostgreSQL

Postgresql is a well supported and open source database server. There is a long debate regarding whether MySQL is better or PostgreSQL. Actually, there are similar debates like it: Gnome vs KDE, Perl vs Python, PHP vs JSP, Java vs .Net (or Mono). But from installation point of view, it has been seen that PostgreSQL is lighter and requires less dependency than MySQL.

Installing PostgreSQL

To Install PostgreSQL (both client and server):

sudo apt-get install postgresql-8.2

To install PostgreSQL documentation:

sudo apt-get install postgresql-doc-8.2

To install JDBC3 driver for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install libpg-java

To enable php support for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install php5-pgsql

To do administrative works graphically:

sudo apt-get install pgadmin3

To do web-based administrative works:

sudo apt-get install phppgadmin

Configuring PostgreSQL

To use postgresql, create a database instance and a user/role:

sudo -u postgres createdb $USER

sudo -u postgres createuser $USER

Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:

psql

To login as the administrator:

sudo -u postgres psql

To be able to login from remote machine or from PHP or through JDBC driver, you have to set your password from PostgreSQL client (psql):

ALTER USER user PASSWORD 'pass';

replace user and pass by your user name and password respectively. To test whether remote login works or not, run:

psql -h host -p 5432 -d database -U user

Visit http://www.php.net/manual/en/ref.pgsql.php to see how php works with PostgreSQL.

Using pgadmin3

To configure PostgreSQL using pgadmin3:

  • Open psql client as administrator postgres (see above Configure PostgreSQL)
  • Change the password for the administrator postgres (see above)
  • Open Applications -> System Tools -> pgAdmin III from main menu.
  • Open File -> Add Server...
  • Set Address to localhost or 127.0.0.1 (or something you have set)
  • Give a Description by which this connection will be identified.
  • Accept default port (5432), SSL (_blank_), Maintenance DB (postgres) and Username (postgres)
  • set the Password that you have set earlier. Click OK.

Using phppgadmin

To configure PostgreSQL using phppgadmin run:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/phppgadmin /var/www/phpPgAdmin

Set a password for administrator: postgres (see [[|#Configuring_PostgreSQL]]).

Open /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php and change:

$conf['extra_login_security'] = false;

It will enable administrative login. Finally visit http://localhost/phpPgAdmin/ to login.

Using PostgreSQL with OpenOffice

  • Open Applications -> Office -> OpenOffice.org Database.
  • Select 'Connect to an existing database'. From the list select JDBC and click Next.
  • Make Datasource URL to:
jdbc:postgresql://localhost/database

Replace localhost by your hostname, database by the database instance you have created.

  • Set JDBC driver class to:
org.postgresql.Driver
  • Click 'Test class' to make sure JDBC driver class connects Datasource URL properly. Click Next.
  • Type your User name and select 'Password required' option.
  • Click Test connection. A popup dialog will appear. Enter your password and click OK.
  • If everything works properly, then a confirmation dialog will appear.
  • Click Next. Some optional settings will appear. Click Finish to complete.

Using PostgreSQL JDBC driver

The following Java code is a simple program to illustrate how JDBC can be used with Postgresql:

// pgVersion.java

import java.sql.*;

class pgVersion {

public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {

if(arg.length!=4) { System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password"); return; } // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver"); Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver(); DriverManager.registerDriver(driver); String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&password="+arg[3]; Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); System.out.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); conn.close(); DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver); }

}

You can run the former code in two ways:

  • Using CLASSPATH environment variable:
export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:.

javac pgVersion.java java pgVersion host database user password

Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.

  • Alternately, you can run as follows:
javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java

java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password

The output is as expected:

PostgreSQL 8.2.5 on i486-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by GCC cc (GCC) 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Ubuntu 4.1.2-16ubuntu1)

MySQL

According to this page both MySQL and PostgreSQL are good alternatives of proprietary softwares like DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL Server etc.

To install both the server and client:

sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

db4free is a great database server for tryout different things remotely. If you want to use this site, then you do not have to install MySQL server. Just install the client, documentation and php or jdbc connectivity.

IBM DB2

Visit here for software available from IBM. According to this page, DB2 can be installed on ubuntu.

Download

To download DB2 trial visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Data Server trial. Then you have to sign in (create an account if not already created) in order to download. Choose either of the following:

  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on AMD64 and Intel(R) EM64T systems (x64)
  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on System z

Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Alternately, visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Express-C. Then choose DB2 Express-C 9.5 for Linux and click continue. Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally select either of the following:

  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture
  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 64-bit architecture

click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Installing DB2

I choose 'DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture' to demonstrate how to install. If you have chosen a different version, make necessary changes accordingly. Let's assume the downloaded file is on your home directory. Then do the following:

tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz

cd ~/exp sudo apt-get install libaio1 sudo ./db2setup

Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.

Uninstalling DB2

If you have installed with all default settings (as mentioned above) then just running the following commands would remove the db2 completely. In case you have changed something during installation, then make appropriate changes accordingly.

cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5

./instance/db2ilist sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1 sudo install/db2_deinstall -a cd && sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/ sudo userdel -r dasusr1 sudo userdel -r db2fenc1 sudo userdel -r db2inst1 sudo groupdel dasadm1 sudo groupdel db2fadm1 sudo groupdel db2iadm1

Before running those commands, please make sure:

  • Make sure, db2 is not running.
  • Identify DB2 installation directory (E.g /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5)
  • Identify DB2 instances (using db2ilist command, see the second command)
  • Drop each and every instances (using db2idrop command, third command)
  • If you have other IBM softwares in /opt/ibm then remove only /opt/ibm/db2 directory.
  • Delete user and group accounts that you have created for db2.

Oracle database

A problem might occur if your swap space is less than 1 GB. In that case you have to do the following:

  • Turn off the swap space. (run 'man swapoff' for help)
  • Resize the swap partition. (run 'man fdisk' and 'man cfdisk' for help)
  • Restart the system. (not mandatory, but recommended)
  • Edit the /etc/fstab file to update the UUID of the swap partition. ([[|#How_to_find_the_UUID_of_a_device]])
  • Turn on the swap space. (run 'man swapon' for help)

SSH

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu host

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]

The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]].

In this example:

Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.2 username is a valid user on the remote host

ssh [email protected]

You can tunnel to a URL as well:

ssh [email protected]

If your LAN uses a dynamic IP to connect to the Internet, you can use a Dynamic IP service (such as DynDNS) to assign a static URL to your LAN (foobar.dyndns.org, for example). An SSH request over the Internet to your URL (e.g. foobar.dyndns.org) would then be routed by the DynDNS service to your modem/router. Your router must then be set to forward the port used for the SSH tunnel to your host machine on the LAN. (SSH tunnels generally occur by default over port 22, but it can be changed (see below)).

For some humor: Read Etymology of foobar. You can explicitly select the port number (instead of port 22) for the SSH tunnel:

ssh [email protected]:11022

However, if you do this, the host SSH server must be listening on the same port (port 11022 in the example). The port to listen to can be set in the ssdh_config file of the OpenSSH server (provided in Ubuntu) on your host. Also, your router must be configured to forward port 11022 to your OpenSSH host.

How to change SSH Server Port Number

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]]

Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config for editing

gksu gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Look for the line

# What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for

Port 22

Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

Using SSH to Port Forward

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]].
  • The format of the client command to create an SSH tunnel to an OpenSSH host listening on the default port 22 is:
ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

An example is:

ssh -L 6669:94.92.10.15:6667 foowho

In this example, local port 6669 on the local client computer is tunneled by encrypted SSH over the default port 22 to the router at 94.92.10.15. The router must be set up to forward port 22 to whatever the internal LAN IP (such as 192.168.0.56) of the SSH host is. The host is running OpenSSH (ssdh service) and is set to listen to port 22. It then routes the incoming data to the host port 6667, where presumably some other program is waiting for data. foowho has an account on the host running the OpenSSH server.

SSH tunnels can also be established using URLs and even alternate ports. An example is:

ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho -p 11022

In this example, local port 5900 on the client is forwarded through an SSH tunnel on port 11022 to foobar.dyndns.org. The DNS service translates foobar.dyndns.org into the appropriate WAN (Internet) IP address, where the router is listening. The router is set up to forward port 11022 to the LAN machine hosting the OpenSSH server, which is listening on port 11022. It then sends the data to whatever program is running on port 5900 on the host.

  • You can forward a local port to a different port on the remote host.
Example: Make port 80 (web server/browser) on the remote host at 10.0.2.10 available locally as port 81
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 [email protected]
  • You can create secure SSH tunnels to multiple hosts using multiple ports.
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 [email protected]

Now, local port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.10, local port 82 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.20 and local port 83 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.30. In this example, user has an account on all three host machines at 10.0.2.10, 10.0.2.20, and 10.0.2.30.

  • Once port forwarding is set up by ssh, an application is directed to the SSH tunnel for port usage by using the loopback as the destination.
Example 1:
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 [email protected]
http://localhost:81 or http://127.0.0.1/:81 

will direct a web browser to use port 81 locally, which is being redirected by SSH to port 80 on the remote host at 10.0.2.10.

Example 2:
ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho

vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost

will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.

SSH Filesystem

install package: sshfs, see http://fuse.sourceforge.net/sshfs.html

sudo aptitude update

sudo aptitude install sshfs

Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.

sudo adduser <local user> fuse

(propogate new group membership: restart or open new shell, e.g., Ctrl+Alt+F1)

Create writable mount point, e.g, <mount point> = /media/remote

sudo mkdir <mount point>

sudo chgrp fuse <mount point> sudo chmod 775 <mount point>

Mount command

sshfs [<user>@]<host>:[<path>] <mount point>

Unmount command

fusermount -u <mount point>

Ubuntu 7.10 LAMP Server

If you are looking for simple LAMP Server setup in 15min including webmin installation this is for you

(This requires the server version of Gutsy Gibbon, not the standard desktop edition)

How to Install Webmin

Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More.

wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.370_all.deb


sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl

sudo passwd root (Enter new root password, retype)

sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.370_all.deb

To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)

Sun Java Application Server (Java EE)

Official documentation

Installing Application Server

Sun Java Application Server is the heart of Java EE. Download either of the following versions:

  • Java EE 5 SDK Update 3
  • Java Application Platform SDK Update 3 Beta
  • Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 (under individual download section)

Alternately you can download GlassFish application server (community maintained):

Make the download file executable and run as root by:

chmod +x Desktop/filename

sudo ./Desktop/filename

Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant

The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. Ant is also useful to automate building process.

Application Server configuration

When Java EE installs, a domain 'domain1' is automatically installed with it in $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ which is the default directory for all domains. Generally this directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) is not writable. So, as a unprivileged user you can create your own domain in your home directory.

Application Server domain settings

To create, start, stop and delete a domain in your home directory:

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain

asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain

Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.

sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain asadmin start-domain mydomain asadmin stop-domain mydomain asadmin delete-domain mydomain

If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.

asadmin start-domain

asadmin stop-domain

You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:

asadmin login --host localhost --port 4848

Deploying and un-deploying a web or ejb module is very easy. Just do the following:

asadmin deploy test1.war

asadmin deploy test2.ear

asadmin undeploy test1.war asadmin undeploy test2.ear

Application Server data Source settings

DataSource configuration can be done easily from web based administration console. Here command line method is given:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar

asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property

serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql

asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database

First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:

Context ic = new InitialContext();

DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection();

To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:

asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools

asadmin list-jdbc-resources

To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.

asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database

asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql

Tomcat 6

Installing tomcat

Tomcat can be found in universe repository but it has some drawbacks (e.g. lots of dependencies, unavailability of version 6.x, do not use Sun Java). Thus manual installation is recommended.

Download latest stable version of tomcat from here and extract it in /usr/local as root. Add "JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/" to /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/setclasspath.sh after the first occurrence of "CLASSPATH=". Make sure that sun-java6-jre is installed. Make a soft-link of /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/catalina.sh as /usr/local/bin/tomcat to access easily. Optionally you can remove .exe and .bat files and edit .sh files to remove cygwin, os400 and darwin related codes.

Although not necessary, but the ant program would be useful here. You can also install its documentation.

OpenEJB Server

OpenEJB is an open source, modular, configurable, and extendable EJB Container System and EJB Server. Visit here to see the installation instructions for OpenEJB under Tomcat 6.

Using tomcat with NetBeans

You have to make the configuration files readable because Netbeans generally do not run with administrative privilege. To use Tomcat with with NetBeans, you have to set a user with manager role. A typcal $CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml file would look like:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>

<tomcat-users>

<role rolename="admin"/>

<role rolename="manager"/> <role rolename="tomcat"/> <user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/> <user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/> <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>

</tomcat-users>

Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the <tomcat-users> element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web & Java EE pack.

Configure Database Connection Pool (DBCP) of Tomcat

A database connection pool creates and manages a pool of connections to a database. Recycling and reusing already existing connections to a dB is more efficient than opening a new connection. It is still possible and valid to open and close connection for each servlet/jsp (visit [[|#Using_JDBC_driver]] for details).

Before proceeding, let's assume that $CATALINA_HOME denotes tomcat installation directory (typically: /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.0.14).

echo $CATALINA_HOME

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes

Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" version="2.5">

<resource-ref>

<description>PostgreSQL connectivity</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/postgresql</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref>

<description>

Page for testing </description> <display-name>Testing page</display-name> <servlet> <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name> <servlet-class>pgsqlVersion</servlet-class> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/pgsqlVersion</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<Context>

<Resource

name="jdbc/postgresql" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver" url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database" username="user" password="password" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/> <WatchedResource>WEB-INF/web.xml</WatchedResource> <WatchedResource>META-INF/context.xml</WatchedResource>

</Context>

Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:

import java.io.*;

import java.sql.*; import javax.sql.*; import javax.naming.*; import javax.servlet.*; public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {

public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {

try { response.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter(); Context initContext = new InitialContext(); Context envContext = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env"); DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection(); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); pw.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); } catch(Exception e) { } }

}

Create index.html and set its content:

<title>PostgreSQL datasource</title><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">





Then compile the servlet:

export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:.

javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java

Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!


Nagios Network Monitoring Server

It should be noted that this howto instructs you to build nagios from its sources, while it exists on the official repositories.

NFS Server

  • Read Linux NFS FAQ
  • Run this command for each computer to determine the IP Addresses for each one:
ifconfig

Installing NFS Server

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Reconfigure Portmap to not bind to loopback interface:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap 

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

Define which folders to share (export):

sudo nano /etc/exports

Add share (export) definitions:

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read/Write access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(rw,no_root_squash,async)

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read Only access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(ro,async)

192.168.1.0/24 above would be the clients IP Address

When finished, save changes and restart the NFS Server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Export your new configuration:

sudo exportfs -a

Installing NFS Client

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common

Mounting Manually

cd ~

mkdir temp sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp

192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address

You may need to restart NFS services:

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart

Mounting Automatically

Create mountpoint:

sudo mkdir /mnt/files

Edit configuration:

gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

Add something similar to below:

192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0

Test new configuration:

sudo mount -a

Reboot to test automatic mounting.

硬件

NVidia 驱动

首先,弄清楚你清楚你是什么内核运行以下命令查看:

[email protected]:~$ uname -a

Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux

I have the generic kernel, so I need to install the following:

sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic


After that's done, go to System > Administration > Restricted Drivers Manager and turn on the driver.

Some users may receive an error screen: "The software source for the packsge nvidia-glx-new is not enabled." This can be overcome by going to System > Administration > Software Sources and ticking all the boxes under the heading "Downloadable from the Internet", click close and then allow Ubuntu to reload the package lists. The NVidia drivers can then be enabled using the method above.

You can optionally prevent showing NVidia logo on startup by:

sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo

Wacom tablet

By default, options for the Wacom tablet are commented out. Type the following command to edit the xorg.conf file.

gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Uncomment the following by removing the "#" or just replace the tree lines:

InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents"

InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents" InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"

Save and restart your X-session by typing CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE.

Microsoft Intellimouse

To get the scroll wheel and side buttons to be recognized, change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

Section "InputDevice"

Identifier "Configured Mouse"

Driver "mouse" Option "CorePointer" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true" Option "Buttons" "7" Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"

EndSection

If you want the wheel scroll button to scroll in firefox rather than the side buttons make "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" and "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".

At this point you can reboot your computer or restart X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. You can test in a terminal with xev.

Logitech Marble Mouse

To get the scrollwheel effect on Logitech trackball (Marble Mouse), change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

Section "InputDevice"

Identifier "MarbleMouse"

Driver "mouse" Option "Protocol" "auto" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Buttons" "5" Option "ButtonMapping" "1 8 3 6 7" Option "EmulateWheel" "true" Option "EmulateWheelTimeout" "300" # msec Option "EmulateWheelButton" "6" Option "YAxisMapping" "4 5"

EndSection

Make sure that you have "MarbleMouse" under the server layout section as well.

The big left and right buttons work normally (click, right click) and pressing them at the same time acts as a middle click. Holding the small left button will let you scroll up and down with the trackball. Clicking small left and right buttons will let you go back/forward in firefox.

Thanks to imjustabill and Buffalo Soldier from the Ubuntu Forum. This works well on my computer.

Logitech MX510

To have the extra buttons on your MX510 working with X, you'll have to install and configure the evdev-drivers. Open up a terminal and enter:

sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-evdev 

Now, all you have to do is configure Xorg to work with the new driver. Always remember to back up original files before altering:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Locate and replace the InputDevice section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier Configured Mouse, and replace it with:

Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Configured Mouse"
 Driver "evdev"
 Option "CorePointer"
 Option "Name" "Logitech MX510"
 EndSection 

Logout or kill the X session using <CTRL><ALT><BACKSPACE> and login again. This should get all of your buttons and scrollwheel up and running, and even let you navigate the webbrowser history using the thumb buttons on the side.

Disable CAPS LOCK

I like to remap mine to <Ctrl>. Just run gnome-keyboard-properties with "System > Preferences > Keyboard", click on the "Layout Options" tab and then on the arrow next to "Ctrl key position". Selecting "Make CapsLock an additional Ctrl" does the trick.

Enabling NUM LOCK at boot

The Default behavior is for the NUM LOCK key to be off; if you are on a desktop and have a keypad though, entering digits from it can be much quicker and you may wish to have it enabled for entering login password, etc. Here's how:

  • From Synaptic, download and install "numlockx," or, from the command line;
sudo apt-get install numlockx
  • To get it working, you now have to edit the appropriate startup file. First, make sure you have a working backup of the file:
sudo cp /etc/gdm/Init/Default /etc/gdm/Init/Default.bak
  • Next, modify the gdm/Init file. In terminal:
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/Init/Default
  • Scroll down to the end of the file, and above the line that says "exit 0" add the following:
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then

/usr/bin/numlockx on fi

  • Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on."

BSNL Broadband (dataone) speedup

BSNL Broadband or Dataone provides high speed (2Mbps) Internet connectivity in India. The DNS servers provided by the BSNL (61.1.96.69 and 61.1.96.71) are very slow. Instead use Either of these:

208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 or

4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or

search Google for free DNS service providers.

Citrix ICA client

The Citrix client no longer suffers from any of the previous Ubuntu version's problems of UTF8 font issues, OpenMotif depends, or flaky/broken browser integration. It just works!

  • Download the latest en.linuxx86.tar.gz (currently v10.6) from Citrix.com and save to your desktop
  • Right-click tar.gz file, and Extract Here
  • Open a Terminal
Programs > Accessories > Terminal
  • Change to the directory where we extracted the client
cd Desktop/en.linuxx86
  • Run the setup program
./setupwfc
  • Select the defaults

Now, web files from Metaframe Presentation Server, Citrix Access Gateway, etc webpages will work fine in Firefox.

Someone may wish to add an entry on how to use the client to connect to a local Citrix farm.

WINE

Latest install instructions are always at: WineHQ.org

Add repository key:

wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Add repository to apt sources:

sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list

Update apt sources:

sudo apt-get update

Install WINE:

sudo apt-get install wine

The program menu then appears in Programs under Wine, or double-click a Windows/DOS .exe file.

Install Internet Explorer 6 for Wine

IE 6 is not recommended for general usage, but some Windows packages (installed under Wine) require IE6 to complete installation. Furthermore, IE 6 is useful for checking code for developers who want to see how their web pages appear under IE 6.

Install the required package cabextract from Synaptic Package Manager (or from apt-get install cabextract).

Download and run the IEs4Linux installation script from the IEs4Linux website:

wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz

tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz cd ies4linux-* ./ies4linux


There is a beta version of the install at http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads

If you hit advance you have the option to install IE7. I have not gotten it to work as of yet, but IE6 installs with no issues on amd64 and i386

Accept all the defaults for installation.

Wine-Doors

Wine-Doors http://www.wine-doors.org/ packages Windows applications for Wine. The current package list includes Internet Explorer 6.

Debian/Ubuntu package (single click) available for download.

VMWare Server

Until the Commercial Ubuntu repository includes the VMWare Server, you can use the following 'How To' to compile from source.

VMWare Tools

If you want to install VMware tools on ubuntu gutsy follow this steps

To be able to use usb devices look at following bug comment at https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5

How to install Broadcom wireless driver

  • This worked for me Kubuntu 7.10 32 bit but there are several ways
  • First, make sure you have the appropriate hardware
lspci | grep Broadcom
  • Output should match this
02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
  • Then you have to add a repository
gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add
deb http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
  • Then do this to add the signature
wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Back in the console
sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware

  • Just press yes, let it install, and reboot! Thanks to Pete and the 7.04 guide for this.

Requests

If you have requests that you would like to be part of this guide, write them in Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy.

Troubleshooting

Place solutions to problems you have encountered with Gutsy here. They may be workarounds to bugs or other solutions to other problems.

OpenOffice spell checking problem

This problem is not a bug at all. Some Languages do not have spell checking support, while others do. For example, "English (India)" does not support spell checking but "English (USA)" does. Just go to

Tools -> Options -> Language Settings -> Languages

and select a Western language that has a check mark beside the language name. That's it.

If you want to add languages that support spell checking, install the package myspell-<language> where <language> is the desired language, e.g.:

sudo apt-get install myspell-fr 

to install the French dictionary.

Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout

SCIM might not work properly under Gutsy Gibbon, although works fine under Feisty Fawn. Until the problem is fixed, you can use the alternative method to switch keyboard layout.

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Language Support and install the languages you want to use.
  • Open System -> Preferences -> Keyboard and add the layout that you want to use from Layouts tab.
  • Right click on the free space of upper panel and select "Add to panel...". Add Keyboard Indicator.

Fix Slow boot/faulty splash screen

if your system is booting slowly or your ubuntu splash screen is not being displayed it could be that Usplash has created the splash screen incorrectly

1) edit /boot/grub/menu.lst

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

At the very end of the kernel line after "splash" , add

"vga=***" 

replace *** with the code from the table below that corresponds with the resolution and colour setting you are using

Screen 640x480 800x600 1024x768 1280x1024 1600x1200
Colors
256 769 771 773 775 796
32,768 784 787 790 793 797
65,536 785 788 791 794 798
16.8M 786 789 792 795 799

the line should look something like this

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.22-14-generic root=UUID=20fd9912-6383-4860-9cd8-88a11909d715 ro quiet splash vga=791

Save that file, close it,

2) edit /etc/usplash.conf

sudo gedit /etc/usplash.conf

change the resolution to the one you set in the previous step save and close

3) rebuild the bootsplash screen

sudo update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`

This rebuilds the image that Grub uses to start the system.

4) reboot

Logout problem

Some users have have faced a hangout problem when whey press the quit button. Currently the following symptom and work-around have been noticed:

  • Press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to kill X-Window and show the GDM screen.
  • gnome-power-manager service should be on. You can enable it from System->Preferences->Sessions.
  • Wait for 1 minute. The quit window will appear. (the logout problem will vanish for some times).
  • For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.

Tips And Tricks

It is pointless to add the tricks that is already added in Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Tricks. So, only new tricks are added.

What to do when Ubuntu freezes

There are different reasons for a computer to crash - there can be a programming bug, a memory issue, or other. When your computer seems to be dead, don't panic! And don't reach for that power button! There are five simple things you can try before killing the power:

  1. Is the computer frozen? Try going into one of the VTs by pressing <Ctrl><Alt> and F1. This way you may still have control of the computer and manage to kill the application which caused the problem. More on killing applications later.
  2. If you can't change into a VT, try to kill the X session. This can be done by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Backspace>. All applications that were opened during the session will automatically be killed, so you should gain control over the computer after you've been sent back to the login screen.
  3. OK, so you can't kill X or go into VT. Let's do a reboot, which can safely be done by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Delete>. The machine will beep and start running the shutdown scripts.
  4. If for some reason one or more of the shutdown scripts should die, and the computer stops the rebooting process, press the key combination again to force a reboot. This not safe if the scripts haven't gotten around to unmount the local filesystems.
  5. Final way out: Your computer doesn't obey and none of above methods seem to give any response. Here's a little trick that might help, not known to many Linux users! The kernel has a small userspace communication line opened, so even if the computer has crashed badly (I haven't tried this during kernel-panic, though, can anyone confirm?) you can make it reboot safely. This method is safe, but should be used only if everything else fails! Hold down <Ctrl>, <Alt> and <PrtScrn/SysRq>. While holding down these, type the following letters - in order - R E I S U B. The computer will unmount any filesystems that are locally mounted, and safely bring down the system. If you have trouble remembering the letter combination; think busier, only backwards.

How to find the UUID of a device

  • This is useful if changes are made to the partition table or a new hard drive is added to the computer.
  • When the UUID(s) change an error will be caused during boot.
  • Pressing <Ctrl>-D will allow the boot to continue but to fix the problem:

-> Open fstab file:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

-> In another terminal run this commmand:

ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/ 

-> Or you can type this to list all of your devices:

blkid
  • Compare the UUID's and any that are different in fstab from the list must be changed. The easiest way is copy and paste.
  • Some other things may have to be edited as well like the mount point, type (ext2, ext3, ntfs, etc) , options, dump, pass, etc.

For more help editing fstab look Here:

  • To list the UUID of a specific device:
sudo vol_id -u device
  • Where device might be /dev/sdxy.

Example: sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1

Enable vim syntax highlighting

The source of vi/vim command is vim-tiny package which does not support syntax highlighting. Install vim:

sudo apt-get install vim

Then open /etc/vim/vimrc and uncomment syntax on

Replace

"syntax on

With

syntax on

HAL

If you have problem failed to initialize HAL, and devices such as card reader,or shutdown problem, power meter doesn´t appear..please find this line in /etc/init.d/rc

sudo vim /etc/init.d/rc find this line : CONCURRENCY=shell

To fix this:

sudo nautilus


Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder rc2.d rename s12hal to s13hal

the problem was HAL loading before DBUS and causing such error. this should fiz the problem, if not

sudo gedit /etc/init.d/rc

and turn CONCURRENCY=shell to CONCURRENCY=none

Enable Sirius Internet Radio for Firefox

Launch the player from www.sirius.com. After authenticating, you will now be able to select which stream to play. Selecting the stream will launch vlc.

Remove unwanted language/locale files

sudo apt-get install localepurge

sudo localepurge

Auto starting pidgin at login

Goto System -> Preferences -> Sessions. Click Add. A popup window will appear. Set Name to "Pidgin" and Command to "/usr/bin/pidgin". Click OK. Make sure that it is enabled.

sudo/gksu without password

EDITOR=gedit gksu visudo

Find "Defaults !lecture,tty_tickets,!fqdn" and replace by "Defaults timestamp_timeout=-1".

Speed-up Ubuntu

Open System -> Preferences -> Sessions and remove the startup programs that you do not need (e.g. Bluetooth Manager, Evolution Alarm Notifier, Restricted Driver Manager, Tracker, User folders update, Visual).

Open System -> Preferences -> Appearance and make Visual Effects to None.

Open System -> Administration -> Services and disable the services that you do not need (e.g. alsa-utils, bluetooth, brltty, hdparm, acpid, apmd, screen).

How to change the USplash Screen on startup/shutdown

When you add another Desktop Environment, the USplash screen may change (saying Kubuntu instead of Ubuntu). If you want to change it, do the following:

sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so

This will bring up a list of installed USplash screens. Type the number that corresponds to the one you want and press Enter. Then type:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure usplash

Then reboot.

Guide Development

Note: This section was taken from the Feisty Guide and edited appropriately.

Place ideas here to increase the look and performance of this guide.

  • Add a new section for Gnome Themes from http://art.gnome.org and KDE Themes from http://www.kde-look.org/.
  • Have entries under their headings in alphabetical order.
  • Try to keep the guide neat and clutter free.
  • Possible "Short Version" Table of contents without each "How to".
  • Add a [top] link to the end of each article.
  • If possible, include a 'find/search' function to easily access queries.
    • This can be done in Firefox with <Ctrl>-F.
  • instead of 'apt-get install', there could be the new Gutsy apturl feature for easier installation of software