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{{Translation}} {{From|http://ubuntuguide.org/Ubuntu:Gutsy}} {{Languages|Ubuntu:Gutsy}} {{Translator|zhan convice}}
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{{Translation}} {{From|http://ubuntuguide.org/Ubuntu:Gutsy}} {{Languages|Ubuntu:Gutsy}} {{Translator|zhan convice peterhello duryding}}
  
 
= '''''Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)''''' =
 
= '''''Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)''''' =
  
'''Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, the successor of Feisty Fawn was released on Oct 18th, 2007. Please help test and perfect this guide.''' '''Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, Feisty Fawn 的後续版本,于 2007 年 10 月 18 日已经发布。请帮忙测试和完善这份指南'''
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'''Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, Feisty Fawn 的后续版本,于 2007 年 10 月 18 日已经发布。请帮忙测试和完善这份指南'''<br>
  
This guide was started by [[User:Jiyuu0|Chua Wen Kiat]] (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). It is now being maintained by the [http://linux.edu.lv/index.php?newlang=english Linux Center] of [http://www.lu.lv/eng/ University of Latvia], and everyone else who is willing to contribute.
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这份指南由 [[User:Jiyuu0|Chua Wen Kiat]] (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). 发起。现在它由[http://www.lu.lv/eng/ Latvia 大学]的[http://linux.edu.lv/index.php?newlang=english Linux 中心]和所有愿意贡献的其他人们共同维护。<br>
 
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这份指南由 [[User:Jiyuu0|Chua Wen Kiat]] (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). 发起。现在它由[http://www.lu.lv/eng/ Latvia 大学]的[http://linux.edu.lv/index.php?newlang=english Linux 中心]和所有愿意贡献的其他人们共同维护。
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This guide can be discussed at the official [http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=78 UbuntuGuide.org Forum] at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.
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这份手册可以在官方论坛 ubuntuforums.org 的[http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=78 UbuntuGuide.org 论坛] 讨论。加入讨论吧。
 
这份手册可以在官方论坛 ubuntuforums.org 的[http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=78 UbuntuGuide.org 论坛] 讨论。加入讨论吧。
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=== 关于 Gutsy ===
 
=== 关于 Gutsy ===
 
* On October 18, 2007 Ubuntu 7.10 was released.
 
* It was code named Gutsy Gibbon and is the successor to Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn (Feisty+1 or the very next release after Feisty)
 
* Gutsy will be supported for 18 months on both desktops and servers.
 
* Users requiring a longer support lifetime on servers may choose to continue using Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, with security support until 2011, rather than upgrade to or install 7.10.
 
  
 
* 2007 年 10 月 18 日,Ubuntu 7.10 发布。
 
* 2007 年 10 月 18 日,Ubuntu 7.10 发布。
* 它被命名为 Gutsy Gibbon,它是 Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn 的後续版本(Feisty +1 或紧接 Feisty 之後发布的版本)
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* 它被命名为 Gutsy Gibbon,它是 Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn 的后续版本(Feisty +1 或紧接 Feisty 之后发布的版本)
 
* Gutsy 将在桌面和服务器版本上提供 18 个月的支持
 
* Gutsy 将在桌面和服务器版本上提供 18 个月的支持
 
* 要求更长期服务器版本支持的用户可以选择 Ubuntu 6.06 LTS ,而不是更新到 7.10, 因为 6.06 的安全支持直到 2011 年。
 
* 要求更长期服务器版本支持的用户可以选择 Ubuntu 6.06 LTS ,而不是更新到 7.10, 因为 6.06 的安全支持直到 2011 年。
  
=== 如何找出您正在使用的 Ubuntu 版本 ===
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=== 如何知道您正在使用的 Ubuntu 的版本 ===
  
* Read [[|#General Notes]]
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* 阅读[[|#General Notes]]
* In Gutsy goto System -&gt; Administration -&gt; System Monitor -&gt; System Tab
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* Gutsy 中转到 系统 -&gt; 系统管理 -&gt; 系统监视器 -&gt; 系统 选项卡<br>
  
or on all versions and derivatives of Ubuntu use this command:
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或者在所有的 Ubuntu 版本及派生版中都可以使用这个命令:
 
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lsb_release -a
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* 读一下 [[|#General Notes]]
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* 在 Gutsy 中,到系统-&gt;管理-&gt;系统监视器-&gt;系统标示 查看
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或者在所有的 Ubuntu 版本和衍生版本中,使用这个命令:
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  lsb_release -a
 
  lsb_release -a
  
 
=== Ubuntu 的更新的版本 ===
 
=== Ubuntu 的更新的版本 ===
 
* Ubuntu uses a six month release cycle
 
* These releases occur in April and October
 
* The next release is scheduled for April 24, 2008 and will be Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron) which is Gutsy+1.
 
* Hardy Heron will be a LTS (Long Term Support) release and will be supported with security updates for five years on the server and three years on the desktop.
 
  
 
* Ubuntu 采用 6 个月的发行周期
 
* Ubuntu 采用 6 个月的发行周期
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* '''[[Ubuntu dapper|6.06 (Dapper Drake)]]'''
 
* '''[[Ubuntu dapper|6.06 (Dapper Drake)]]'''
  
If you are using an outdated version of Ubuntu, you should consider updating it to Gutsy. There have been considerable improvements to this version, and the updater used in Gutsy will ease transitions to future versions. If you are in a production environment, or if everything works perfectly for you, you may wish to stay with a Long-Term Support (LTS) version.
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如果您使用一个 Ubuntu 的过时的版本,您应该考虑将其升级到 Gutsy。 这个版本有相当多的改进,并且和将来的版本更加容易整合。如果您使用其作为一个生产环境,或您认为所有的事情都很完美,您可以考虑仍然使用长期支持版本(LTS)。
 
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如果您试用一个 Ubuntu 的过时的版本,您应该考虑将其升级到 Gutsy。 这个版本有相当多的改进,并且和将来的版本更加容易整合。如果您使用其作为一个生产环境,或您认为所有的事情都很完美,您可以考虑仍然使用长期支持版本(LTS)。
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* [http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/upgrading Ubuntu 升级页面]
 
* [http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/upgrading Ubuntu 升级页面]
 
* Dapper is latest LTS and the next version Gutsy+1 will be the next LTS released.
 
 
* Read [https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-devel-announce/2007-April/000276.html Introduction to Gutsy Gibbon] from April 2007
 
  
 
* Dapper 是最新的 LTS 版本,Gutsy+1 的新版本将是下一个 LTS 版本。
 
* Dapper 是最新的 LTS 版本,Gutsy+1 的新版本将是下一个 LTS 版本。
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* 读一下从 2007 年 4 月开始的[https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-devel-announce/2007-April/000276.html Gutsy Gibbon 简介]
 
* 读一下从 2007 年 4 月开始的[https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-devel-announce/2007-April/000276.html Gutsy Gibbon 简介]
  
=== General Notes ===
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=== 一般说明<br> ===
  
 
# 这是一个非官方的 Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) 初学者向导. 它与 Ubuntu和 Canonical 公司都没有关系.
 
# 这是一个非官方的 Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) 初学者向导. 它与 Ubuntu和 Canonical 公司都没有关系.
# 这个向导发自于官方论坛([http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=78 UbuntuGuide.org Forum] at ubuntuforums.org).欢迎参与讨论。
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# 这个向导发自于官方论坛([http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=78 UbuntuGuide.org Forum] at ubuntuforums.org).欢迎参与讨论。&nbsp;
# If you see a bluish box, this means you have to execute the commands in Terminal mode (Applications -&gt; Accesories -&gt; Terminal) or use the content of that box as mentioned in some other instructions.
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# 如果您看到蓝色方框,这意味着您需要在终端模式中执行这些命令(应用程序 -〉附件 -〉终端)或者按照相应说明执行方框中的内容。
# 在终端模式,你也可以用“复制”“粘贴”来代替用键盘键入命令,这样往往可以有效的防止输入错误。(Ctrl+c=复制,Shift+Insert=粘贴)
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# 在终端模式,您也可以用“复制”“粘贴”来代替用键盘键入命令,这样往往可以有效的防止输入错误。(Ctrl+c=复制,Shift+Insert=粘贴)
# "sudo" 表示 "'''s'''ubstitute '''u'''ser '''do'''". Sudo 需要你提供密码(密码不会在终端中回显). 你可以利用sudo代替另一个用户在计算机上操作-比如&nbsp; sudo -u peter &lt;命令&gt; 将会以peter的身份在计算机上执行此命令。<br>
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# "sudo" 表示 "substitute user do''. sudo 需要您提供密码(密码不会在终端中回显). 您可以利用sudo代替另一个用户在计算机上操作-比如&nbsp; sudo -u peter &lt;命令&gt; 将会以peter的身份在计算机上执行此命令。<br>
 
# 欲获得更多关于命令的信息,请参阅手册页。例如,在终端中输入“man sudo”可以获得与sudo相关的信息。
 
# 欲获得更多关于命令的信息,请参阅手册页。例如,在终端中输入“man sudo”可以获得与sudo相关的信息。
# 你也可以使用更新管理器来代替"apt-get"(系统-系统管理-更新管理器)
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# 您也可以使用更新管理器来代替"apt-get"(系统-系统管理-更新管理器)
 
# "apt-get"和"wget"都需要网络连接来下载安装和更新程序<br>
 
# "apt-get"和"wget"都需要网络连接来下载安装和更新程序<br>
 
# 所以涉及 "aptitude"的选项都可以用"apt-get"替代.当然可以继续使用"aptitude",但是这可能会造成一些依赖性上的问题。<br>
 
# 所以涉及 "aptitude"的选项都可以用"apt-get"替代.当然可以继续使用"aptitude",但是这可能会造成一些依赖性上的问题。<br>
 
# 可以点击右键选择“链接另存为”来下载文件,但必须保证文件的名字和拓展名都是正确的
 
# 可以点击右键选择“链接另存为”来下载文件,但必须保证文件的名字和拓展名都是正确的
# 如果你有意向帮助Ubuntu本土化,请访问 https://launchpad.net/
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# 如果您有意向帮助Ubuntu本土化,请访问 https://launchpad.net/
# 善待他人的理念永远和Ubuntu一起伴随着你...
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# 善待他人的理念永远和Ubuntu一起伴随着您...
# ''如果使用的是64位的版本,请在“i386”用“amd64”代替''
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# 如果使用的是64位的版本,请在“i386”用“amd64”代替
  
 
=== 外部链接申明 ===
 
=== 外部链接申明 ===
  
这份指南中的很多部分都有外部链接,这可以使这份指南更加精悍,然而Ubuntugide.org不能保证每个链接都是有效的。我们不能对本指南以外的一些拓展链接负责,如果你发现哪个链接是无效的,那请在此处报告问题,或者为我们修正那些指向错误的外部链接。因为有你,我们才能做的更加完美。
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这份指南中的很多部分都有外部链接,这可以使这份指南更加精悍,然而Ubuntugide.org不能保证每个链接都是有效的。我们不能对本指南以外的一些拓展链接负责,如果您发现哪个链接是无效的,那请在此处报告问题,或者为我们修正那些指向错误的外部链接。因为有您,我们才能做的更加完美。
  
 
==== ''关于链接出错'' ====
 
==== ''关于链接出错'' ====
  
 
''如果您发现某个链接是错误的或者无法找到相关信息,那请将此连接贴到此处,包括您是在哪段里找到此链接的。谢谢合作!''
 
''如果您发现某个链接是错误的或者无法找到相关信息,那请将此连接贴到此处,包括您是在哪段里找到此链接的。谢谢合作!''
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 +
Directory does not exist! Please specify existing directory at Preferences tab!
  
 
=== 关于Ubuntu以及官方的一些相关内容<br> ===
 
=== 关于Ubuntu以及官方的一些相关内容<br> ===
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[http://www.debianadmin.com/ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon-screenshots-tour.html Ubuntu 7.10 截图展示&nbsp;]
 
[http://www.debianadmin.com/ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon-screenshots-tour.html Ubuntu 7.10 截图展示&nbsp;]
  
==== Kubuntu 7.10的相关指导<br> ====
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==== Kubuntu 7.10 导航和链接<br> ====
  
* [http://www.kubuntu.org/ Kubuntu官方网站]
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* [http://www.kubuntu.org/ Kubuntu 官方网站]
 
* [http://www.kubuntuguide.org/ Kubuntuguide.org]
 
* [http://www.kubuntuguide.org/ Kubuntuguide.org]
* [http://www.kubuntu.org/docs/about-kubuntu/C/index.html 官方介绍关于Kubuntu]
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* [http://www.kubuntu.org/docs/about-kubuntu/C/index.html 官方关于Kubuntu的介绍]
 
* [http://kubuntuforums.net/forums/index.php Kubuntu官方论坛]
 
* [http://kubuntuforums.net/forums/index.php Kubuntu官方论坛]
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubuntu Wikipedia: Kubuntu]
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubuntu 维基百科:Kubuntu]
  
===== Kubuntu Screenshots =====
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===== Kubuntu 截图 =====
  
[http://www.debianadmin.com/kubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon-screenshots-tour.html Kubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery]
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[http://www.debianadmin.com/kubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon-screenshots-tour.html Kubuntu 7.10 屏幕截图相册]
  
==== Xubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links ====
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==== Xubuntu 7.10 导航和链接<br> ====
  
* [http://www.xubuntu.org/ Xubuntu Official Website]
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* [http://www.xubuntu.org/ Xubuntu 官方网站]
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xubuntu Wikipedia: Xubuntu]
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xubuntu 维基百科:Xubuntu]
 
* [http://www.xubuntuguide.org Xubuntuguide.org]
 
* [http://www.xubuntuguide.org Xubuntuguide.org]
  
===== Xubuntu Screenshots =====
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===== Xubuntu 截图<br> =====
  
[http://www.debianadmin.com/xubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon-screenshots-tour.html Xubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery]
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[http://www.debianadmin.com/xubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon-screenshots-tour.html Xubuntu 7.10 屏幕截图相册]
  
==== Edubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links ====
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==== Edubuntu 7.10 导航和链接<br> ====
  
[http://www.edubuntu.org/ Offical Edubuntu Website] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edubuntu Wikipedia: Edubuntu]
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[http://www.edubuntu.org/ Edubuntu 官方网站]<br>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edubuntu 维基百科:Edubuntu]
  
==== Gobuntu 7.10 Guides and Links ====
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==== Gobuntu 7.10 导航和链接<br> ====
  
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gobuntu Wikipedia: Gobuntu]
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gobuntu 维基百科:Gobuntu]
  
 
=== 翻译和本地化 ===
 
=== 翻译和本地化 ===
  
Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese and most European languages have better support in Ubuntu than any other languages. If your language do not have enough support, then you can help Ubuntu by translating it in your preferred language. To translate, visit https://translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu and login (register if not already registered). Choose your preferred language and start translating.
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Ubuntu对中文,日文,葡萄牙文及其它的欧洲语言的支持比对其它语言的支持要好。如果您的语言没有足够的支持的话,那么您可以帮助Ubuntu翻译成您喜欢的语言。翻译请访问 [https://translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu] 并登录(如果没有注册的话请先注册)。选择您喜欢的语言并开始翻译。
 
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Ubuntu对中文,日文,葡萄牙文及其它的欧洲语言的支持比对其它语言的支持要好。如果你的语言没有足够的支持的话,那么您可以帮助Ubuntu翻译成你喜欢的语言。翻译请访问 [https://translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu] 并登录(如果没有注册的话请先注册)。选择你喜欢的语言并开始翻译。
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== '''''更新升级和安装软件''''' ==
 
== '''''更新升级和安装软件''''' ==
  
=== 怎样加入新的软件仓库 ===
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=== 如何添加新的软件仓库 ===
  
 
''Work in Progress''
 
''Work in Progress''
  
==== 使用菜单 ====
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==== 通过菜单 ====
  
* Choose distribution-friendly repositories. These are part of the Ubuntu distribution system. This is the recommended method.
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* 选择更加友好的软件仓库。这是Ubuntu发行系统的一部分。推荐使用这种方法。
  
* 选择版本友好的软件仓库。这是Ubuntu发行系统的一部分。这是推荐的方法。
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系统--&gt;系统管理--&gt;软件源
  
System--&gt;Administration--&gt;Software Sources
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在您认为您将要用到的软件仓库(main, universe, restricted, multiverse)的前面选中。您可能不需要源码软件仓库。
  
系统--&gt;管理--&gt;软件源
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* 增加第三方软件仓库。这些软件仓库不会被监视,然而,有些十分流行。使用第三方软件仓库会增加您的风险。
  
Check the repositories you think you will need (main, universe, restricted, multiverse). You probably won't need the 'sources' repository.
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系统--&gt;系统管理--&gt;软件源--&gt;第三方软件--&gt;添加
  
检查你认为你将要用到的软件仓库(main, universe, restricted, multiverse)。你可能不需要源码软件仓库。
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为您的软件仓库命名。在这个例子中,我们将要用Medibuntu,一个十分流行但是没有被Ubuntu接纳的软件仓库。
  
* Add any third-party repositories. Such repositories are not monitored in any way. Some are quite popular, however. Use any third-party repository at your own risk.
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''APT行:''deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  
* 增加第三方软件仓库。这些软件仓库不会被监视,然而,有些十分流行。使用第三方软件仓库会增加你的风险。
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* 下载任何需要的 gpg 钥匙并将它们添加到钥匙列表。钥匙是用来验证软件仓库和系统的配套性。我们用Medibuntu 的软件仓库(非 Ubuntu 附属)的例子来说明:
  
  System--&gt;Administration--&gt;Software Sources--&gt;Third-party software--&gt;Add
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  wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  
系统--&gt;管理--&gt;软件源--&gt;第三方软件--&gt;加入
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==== 手动方法 ====
  
Add the name of your repository. In this example, we will use Medibuntu, a popular third-party repository not affiliated with Ubuntu in any way.
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* 备份您现有的软件源列表
  
为你的软件仓库命名。在这个例子中,我们将要用Medibuntu,一个十分流行但是没有被Ubuntu接纳的软件仓库。
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sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  
''APT line:'' deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
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* 用一个文本编辑器打开软件源列表
  
* Download any needed gpg keys and add them to the keylist. This key verifies the repository to your system. The Medibuntu repository (not affiliated with Ubuntu) example is shown:
+
Ubuntu 的用户:
  
  wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
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  sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  
==== 手动方法 ====
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* 用下面的行复盖所有内容
  
* Create a backup of your current list of sources.
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:如果您希望使用当地的软件仓库境象站点,请在 ''archive.ubuntu.com''前面加上“cc.” (cc = 您的国家缩写)
 +
:例如 ''<nowiki>deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse</nowiki>''
  
* 备份你现有的软件源列表
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deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
  
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
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deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
  
* Open the list of sources in a text editor
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# 包括了发行版发布後的後续漏洞修复更新
  
* 用一个文本编辑器打开软件源列表
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deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted&nbsp;
  
Ubuntu users:
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# 社区维护的开源软件 (Universe)
  
Ubuntu用户:
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deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe
  
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
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# 被版权与合法性问题限制的软件 (Multiverse)
  
* Replace everything with the following lines
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse
  
* 用下面的行复盖所有
+
# 移植应用程序 (Backports)
  
:To use your local mirror you can add "''cc.''" before ''archive.ubuntu.com'' (cc = your country code)
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse<br>
:e.g. ''<nowiki>deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse</nowiki>''
+
  
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
+
# Canonical 合作伙伴软件仓库<br>
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
+
+
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
+
## distribution.
+
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted
+
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted
+
+
##Universe
+
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe
+
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe
+
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe
+
+
## Multiverse
+
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse
+
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse
+
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse
+
+
## Backports
+
+
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
+
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
+
+
## Canonical Partner Repository
+
+
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner
+
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner
+
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted
+
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted
+
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe
+
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe
+
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse
+
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse
+
+
## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
+
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
+
  
* Save the edited file
+
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse
 +
 
 +
# PLF 软件仓库 (不被支持的. 可能包括非法软件包. 使用它具有一定风险.)
 +
 
 +
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  
 
* 保存编辑好的文件
 
* 保存编辑好的文件
  
 
  wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
 
  wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
+
 
 +
sudo apt-get update
  
 
=== 怎样从Feisty 升级到 Gutsy ===
 
=== 怎样从Feisty 升级到 Gutsy ===
第270行: 第208行:
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/upgrade-ubuntu-704-feisty-fawn-to-ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon.html 一步一步地按照屏幕显示的升级向导把Ubuntu Feisty 升级到 Gutsy]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/upgrade-ubuntu-704-feisty-fawn-to-ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon.html 一步一步地按照屏幕显示的升级向导把Ubuntu Feisty 升级到 Gutsy]
  
=== How to edit Automatic Updates ===
+
=== 如何编辑自动更新 ===
  
* Enable automatic updates from the menu:
+
* 从菜单打开自动更新:
  
  System--&gt;Administration--&gt;Software Sources--&gt;Updates
+
  系统--&gt;管理--&gt;软件源--&gt;更新
  
Select Important Security Updates and Recommended Security Updates and any other desired updates. Choose frequency of updates.
+
选定重要安全更新和建议安全更新以及其他需要的更新。选取定期更新。
  
=== How to manually update Ubuntu ===
+
=== 如何手动升级 Ubuntu ===
  
* Read [[|#General Notes]]
+
* 查阅[[|#General Notes]]
* Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
+
* 查阅[[|#How to add extra repositories]]
  
* From the command line:
+
* 通过命令行:
  
use http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ page to generate the /etc/apt/sources.list file
+
使用http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ 网页来生成/etc/apt/sources.list 文件
  
take a backup of your existing /etc/apt/sources.list file
+
备份现有的/etc/apt/sources.list文件<br>根椐浏览器中生成的页面内容,创建新的/etc/apt/sources.list 文件<br>然後运行下面的命令
  
create a new /etc/apt/sources.list file from the generated page available on the browser
+
sudo apt-get update
  
now run the following commands
+
sudo apt-get upgrade sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  
sudo apt-get update
+
* 通过主菜单:
sudo apt-get upgrade
+
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
+
  
* From the menu:
+
System -&gt; Administration -&gt; Update Manager
  
  System -&gt; Administration -&gt; Update Manager
+
  系统 -&gt;系统管理 -&gt;更新管理器
  
== '''''Add-on Applications''''' ==
+
== '''''添加应用程序''''' ==
  
 
=== Miscellaneous Applications ===
 
=== Miscellaneous Applications ===
第307行: 第243行:
 
''The application in this section need a home. If Editors have the time, please place these apps in an appropriate category. If the category doesn't exist then make it. Destroy this message when complete. Thanks. --[[User:KrazyPenguin|KrazyPenguin]] 06:16, 27 October 2007 (EEST)''
 
''The application in this section need a home. If Editors have the time, please place these apps in an appropriate category. If the category doesn't exist then make it. Destroy this message when complete. Thanks. --[[User:KrazyPenguin|KrazyPenguin]] 06:16, 27 October 2007 (EEST)''
  
==== Hotwire - Graphical terminal for Ubuntu ====
+
==== Hotwire - Ubuntu的图形化终端 ====
  
If you want graphical terminal for Ubuntu check this Very Useful
+
如果您想要一个Ubuntu的图形化终端,这个将非常有用
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/hotwire-graphical-terminal-for-ubuntu.html Hotwire Installation Guide]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/hotwire-graphical-terminal-for-ubuntu.html Hotwire Installation Guide]
  
==== How to install Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu ====
+
==== 如何在ubuntu下安装 Epiphany浏览器 ====
  
If you want to How to install Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu follow this procedure
+
如果您希望知道如何在 ubuntu 下安装 Epiphany 浏览器请留意下面的内容
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-epiphany-web-browser-in-ubuntu.html Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-epiphany-web-browser-in-ubuntu.html Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu]
  
==== Midori - a lightweight web browser in Ubuntu ====
+
==== Midori - Ubuntu下的一个轻量级网页浏览器 ====
  
If you want to How to install Midori web browser in Ubuntu follow this procedure
+
如果您想知道如何在ubuntu中安装Midori网页浏览器请留意下面的内容
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/midori-a-lightweight-web-browser.html Midori web browser in Ubuntu]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/midori-a-lightweight-web-browser.html Midori web browser in Ubuntu]
  
==== apturl - protocol handler in Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon ====
+
==== apturl - Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon 的操作方法扩展 ====
  
If you want to install ubuntu package from web browser here is simple tool
+
如果您想要使用浏览器安装Ubuntu软件包的话,这里有一个简单的工具
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/apturl-protocol-handler-in-ubuntu-gutsy-gibbon.html apturl Setup guide]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/apturl-protocol-handler-in-ubuntu-gutsy-gibbon.html apturl Setup guide]
  
==== sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links ====
+
==== sysvconfig - init脚本配置实用工具 ====
  
sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links,service command in ubuntu
+
sysvconfig - 在Ubuntu下,配置 init脚本、链接、服务的命令行的工具。<br>
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/sysvconfig-utility-for-configuring-init-script-links.html sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/sysvconfig-utility-for-configuring-init-script-links.html sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links]
  
==== Howto Install qBittorrent in Ubuntu Gutsy ====
+
==== 如何在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent ====
  
sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links,service command in ubuntu
+
如果您想在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent下面的东西对您有用
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-install-qbittorrent-in-ubuntu-gutsy.html Howto Install qBittorrent in Ubuntu Gutsy]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-install-qbittorrent-in-ubuntu-gutsy.html Howto Install qBittorrent in Ubuntu Gutsy]
  
==== Enable Drag and Drop capabilities to aMSN ====
+
==== aMSN使用 ====
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-enable-drag-and-drop-capabilities-to-amsn.html Enable Drag and Drop capabilities to aMSN]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-enable-drag-and-drop-capabilities-to-amsn.html Enable Drag and Drop capabilities to aMSN]
  
==== Mount/Unmount .iso Images in oneclick ====
+
==== 一键挂载/卸载ISO镜像 ====
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/easy-way-of-mountunmount-iso-images-in-ubuntu.html Mount/Unmount .iso Images in oneclick in Ubuntu]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/easy-way-of-mountunmount-iso-images-in-ubuntu.html Mount/Unmount .iso Images in oneclick in Ubuntu]
  
==== Startup Manager ====
+
==== 启动管理器 ====
  
StartUp Manager - change settings in Grub, Grub2 and Usplash
+
启动管理器 -用于更改GRUB、GRUB2和Usplash的设置
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/startup-manager-change-settings-in-grub-grub2-and-usplash.html change settings in Grub, Grub2 and Usplash]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/startup-manager-change-settings-in-grub-grub2-and-usplash.html change settings in Grub, Grub2 and Usplash]
第359行: 第295行:
 
==== Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386 ====
 
==== Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386 ====
  
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-adobe-pdf-reader-811-with-plug-in-for-mozilla-firefox-in-gutsy-gibbon.html Acrobat Reader 8 with firefox plugins step by step installation guide]
+
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-adobe-pdf-reader-811-with-plug-in-for-mozilla-firefox-in-gutsy-gibbon.html 手把手教Acrobat Reader 8之Firefox的插件安装]
  
First
+
首先
  
 
  echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
 
  echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
  
Second
+
然後
  
 
  wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get update
 
  wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get update
  
Third we add plug ins and Reader
+
接着我们安装上阅读器及其插件
  
 
  sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript
 
  sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript
  
You can also install the plug-in for Firefox
+
同样,您可以安装上Firefox的插件
  
 
  sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread
 
  sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread
  
Enjoy Adobe Reader
+
享用Adobe Reader
  
==== OpenOffice add ons ====
+
==== OpenOffice 插件 ====
  
Opening .docx files in OpenOffice for Ubuntu (This will work with other distros)
+
用Ubuntu下的OpenOffice打开.docx文件(其它的发行版本可能也可行)
  
First we need to download the converter, it can be found here&gt; [http://download.novell.com/SummaryFree.jsp?buildid=ESrjfdE4U58%7E] Download the "odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm"
+
首先我们需要下载转换工具,它可以从这里下载&gt; [http://download.novell.com/SummaryFree.jsp?buildid=ESrjfdE4U58%7E] 下载"odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm"
  
Now install alien, if you have not yet
+
如果您还没有安装alien的话,现在把它装上
  
 
  sudo apt-get install alien
 
  sudo apt-get install alien
  
Then we need to convert it, we do not want a .deb package for this, so we use the -ct switch not the -k The -ct converts it to a .tgz
+
接着转换它的包格式,我们不想让它转换为.deb包,所以我们使用-ct的命令参数,而不是-k,命令参数-ct将其转换为.tgz包
  
 
  sudo alien -ct odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm
 
  sudo alien -ct odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm
  
Once it is converted you need to unpack it
+
转换好後您需要将包解压缩
  
 
  tar xvf odf-converter-1.0.0.tgz
 
  tar xvf odf-converter-1.0.0.tgz
  
Now there should be three dirs on you desktop or where ever you un tared these.
+
现在在您的桌面上或者任何您将其解压缩的地方都会有3个文件夹<br>
  
You now need to run
+
运行
  
 
  sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/program/OdfConverter /usr/lib/openoffice/program/
 
  sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/program/OdfConverter /usr/lib/openoffice/program/
第409行: 第345行:
 
Then you are done, you can now open and edit .docx files '''ONLY''' I will post the others when I find them.
 
Then you are done, you can now open and edit .docx files '''ONLY''' I will post the others when I find them.
  
There is an alternative to installing the "odf converter" on Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). The 3 simple steps are as follows:
+
在Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy)上安装"odf converter"还有另一种方法,只需如下简单的3步:
  
(make sure you are logged in as root first, so from the terminal, type '''sudo su -''' and type in your password when prompted)
+
(首先确保您拥有root权限,在终端下,输入'''sudo su -'''并在提示後输入您的密码)
  
Step 1: echo "deb http://ubuntu.org.ua/ getdeb/" &gt;&gt;/etc/apt/sources.list
+
第一步: echo "deb http://ubuntu.org.ua/ getdeb/" &gt;&gt;/etc/apt/sources.list
  
Step 2: apt-get update
+
第二步: apt-get update
  
Step 3: apt-get install odf-converter
+
第三步: apt-get install odf-converter
  
I did the 3 steps above and got it working on my machine. Please do let me know if anyone is having any problems with it.
+
我试了以上3步并让它成功在我机器上运行了起来,大家可以试试,以便让我知道是否会有人用出问题来。
  
==== Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Program (Gramps) ====
+
&nbsp;
  
GRAMPS, the Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System, is an Open Source genealogy program written in Python, using the GTK/GNOME interface. GRAMPS has the ability to import GEDCOM files that are used in such programs as FamilyTree Maker for Windows and can produce reports in various formats such as the popular ABIWord and OpenOffice.org formats as well as HTML and PDF.
+
==== 族谱研究与分析管理软件 (Gramps) ====
 +
 
 +
GRAMPS(Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System), 是一个在GTK/GNOME界面下,由Python语言编写的开源族谱学程序。GRAMPS 可以导入诸如在Windows下由FamilyTree Maker生成的GEDCOM文件,并且可以生成多种格式的报告,例如流行的ABIword和OpenOffice.org格式,以及HTML和PDF格式。
  
 
  sudo apt-get install gramps
 
  sudo apt-get install gramps
第429行: 第367行:
 
=== 桌面 ===
 
=== 桌面 ===
  
==== Howto Tweak Ubuntu System ====
+
==== 怎样使用Tweak优化您的Ubuntu? ====
  
If you want to tweak ubuntu check this
+
详细的Tweak使用说明请点击如下页面:
  
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-tweak-ubuntu.html Howto Tweak Ubuntu System]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-tweak-ubuntu.html Howto Tweak Ubuntu System]
 +
 +
怎样优化Ubuntu系统
  
 
==== AMOR - a creature for your desktop ====
 
==== AMOR - a creature for your desktop ====
第441行: 第381行:
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/amor-a-creature-for-your-desktop.html AMOR - a creature for your desktop]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/amor-a-creature-for-your-desktop.html AMOR - a creature for your desktop]
  
==== Advanced Desktop Effects (Compiz Fusion) ====
+
<br>
 +
 
 +
==== 高级桌面特效 (Compiz Fusion) ====
  
Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon comes shipped with Compiz Fusion pre-installed, which means less tinkering with sensitive configuration files. For most part, Compiz needs proprietary drivers for your graphics card to work properly, so make sure you install those if needed.
+
Compiz Fusion 是 Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 默认安装的,也就是说通常用户是不需要修改关键的配置文件的。但是在很多地方,Compiz 需要私有驱动以确保您的显卡可以正常工作,因此,您必须确认您是否安装了它要求的驱动。<br>
  
To enable desktop effects, turn them on by navigating your GNOME-menu to '''System &gt; Preferences &gt; Appearance'''. Under the tab ''Visual Effects'' you'll find three settings; ''None'', ''Normal'' and ''Extra''. To turn Compiz on, choose one of the two latter.
+
要开启桌面特效,打开 '''系统 &gt; 首选项 &gt; 外观''' ''视觉效果'' 选项卡下您将看到三个选项: ''''''正常'' ''附加''。如果要开启 Compiz,请在后两项中选择一个。<br>
  
If you wish to customize your Compiz options and plugins, such as animations and Desktop Cube, first install the configuration tool:
+
如果您希望定制您的 Compiz 选项和插件,譬如动画效果或桌面立方体,您需要先去安装一个配置工具:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/x11/compizconfig-settings-manager compizconfig-settings-manager]  
 
  sudo apt-get install [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/x11/compizconfig-settings-manager compizconfig-settings-manager]  
  
Then either choose the now available '''''Custom''''' and '''''Preferences''''' from the above ''Visual Effects'' menu, or start the settings manager via the menu '''System &gt; Preferences &gt; Advanced Desktop Effects Settings'''. You can also start the application from the terminal or run dialog ('''ALT + F2'''), using the command '''ccsm'''.
+
然后打开外观对话框,在视觉效果选项卡下选择 '''''自定义''''' '''''gtk 首选项''''', 或者通过选择菜单的 '''系统 &gt; 首选项 &gt; Advanced Desktop Effects Settings'''来打开配置界面。您也可以在终端或运行对话框('''ALT + F2''')中输入 '''ccsm'''来打开它。
  
==== ATI users and Compiz ====
+
==== ATI 用户与 Compiz ====
  
Some ATI cards don't need their proprietary drivers to work with Compiz as the open-sourced driver ('''radeon''') also has support for 3D acceleration. However, the open-sourced driver isn't as fast as the closed-sourced ('''fglrx''') one, so if you need the proprietary one you'll have to tinker around in the terminal a little.
+
一部分 ATI 显卡不需要私有的驱动就可以开启 Compiz,就好比说开源的('''radeon''')也是支持3D加速的。尽管如此,开源驱动仍做不到像闭源的('''fglrx''') 那么快。好吧,如果您需要一个私有驱动,您就需要安装后在终端做一点小的修正。
  
<br> 1. After you've installed the driver, either through the proprietary manager or directly from [http://ati.amd.com/support/driver.html ATI's site], you'll have to setup the Xorg configuration file to work with your new driver. Always remember to back up the original file before altering, in case something goes wrong. Open up a terminal and enter:
+
<br>1. 首先,无论您是从其他网站还是在[http://ati.amd.com/support/driver.html ATI官方网站]下载的,当您安装完驱动后,您必须设置 Xorg 的配置文件来使您的新驱动生效。一定不要忘记在修改之前备份好当前的文件,如果那一步做错了,可以随时打开终端并输入:<br>
  
 
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
 
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf
+
sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf
  
This will disable the default '''radeon''' driver and replace it with ATI's own.
+
此项操作将禁用默认的 '''radeon''' 驱动并开启 ATI 的驱动。<br>
  
<br> 2. Now, let's tell Compiz not to care about drivers that are blacklisted:
+
<br>2. 现在,我们来告诉 Compiz 不要管那些列在黑名单中的驱动:<br>
  
 
  echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" &gt;&gt; $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager
 
  echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" &gt;&gt; $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager
  
Alternatively, you could whitelist the driver, which is a much prettier solution. Run this command to edit the Compiz startup-script:
+
当然,您也可以将它加入白名单。这将是更加完美的解决方案。运行这个命令来编辑Compiz的启动脚本:<br>
  
 
  gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz
 
  gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz
  
Search for '''Driver whitelist''' and add '''''fglrx''''' to the end of the line, like this:
+
搜索 '''Driver whitelist''' 然后在行的结尾处增加 '''''fglrx''''',像这样:<br>
  
 
  # Driver whitelist
 
  # Driver whitelist
  WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"
+
WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"
  
<br> 3. Reboot your computer, login and enable Compiz as mentioned above '''et voilà'''! Behold Compiz and ATI hugging.
+
<br>3. 重启您的计算机,登录然后开启Compiz 作为上面提到的 '''et voilà'''! 看一看 Compiz 拥抱 ATI 吧!<br>
  
==== Live system monitoring ====
+
==== 系统实时监视 ====
  
 
  sudo apt-get install netspeed
 
  sudo apt-get install netspeed
 +
 
  
Right click on the free area of the upper panel and select "Add to Panel...". Add "System Monitor" and "Network Monitor". Right Click on System Monitor and select Preferences. Add the monitor resources that you want to monitor.
+
在顶部面板的空白区域右击并选择“添加到面板..."。添加”系统监视器“和”网络监视器“。在系统监视器上右击并选择”选项“。添加您想监视的监视资源。
  
==== Desktop session recording ====
+
==== 桌面会话录制 ====
  
It is possible to record the whole desktop session along with mouse pointer and sound system. It is a very useful tool for video screenshot as ordinary still picture screenshots generated by pressing Print Screen cannot demonstrate everything. Three applications that can do this for you are Istanbul, Wink and gtk-recordMyDesktop.
+
用来记录整个桌面会话,包括鼠标指针和系统音效。这对于视频截屏是很有用的工具,因为按Print Screen键所生成的常规静态图像往往不能表明所有的东西。有三个程序可以为您做到这些,他们是Istanbul,Wink和gtk-recordMyDesktop。
  
 
====== Istanbul ======
 
====== Istanbul ======
第503行: 第446行:
 
==== International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution) ====
 
==== International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution) ====
  
To switch to the new international clock applet download it from [http://brainstormingproject.free.fr/intlclock_1.0-1ubuntu0_i386.deb Here] <!--{11990239384210} --> then install it with dpkg. <!--{11990239384211} -->
+
To switch to the new international clock applet download it from [http://brainstormingproject.free.fr/intlclock_1.0-1ubuntu0_i386.deb Here] <!--{12077627413590} -->then install it with dpkg. <!--{12077627413591} -->
  
 
Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:
 
Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:
第515行: 第458行:
 
=== 备份 ===
 
=== 备份 ===
  
Ubuntu Backup Options If you want to backup your Ubuntu Desktop Use Sbackup
+
如果你想使用Sbackup备份Ubuntu Desktop。
  
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/backup-and-restore-your-ubuntu-system-using-sbackup.html Sbackup Installation and setup guide]
+
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/backup-and-restore-your-ubuntu-system-using-sbackup.html Sbackup安装设置指引]
  
rdiff-backup Use rdiff-backup ubuntu
+
如果你想使用rdiff-backup备份ubuntu
  
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/backup-ubuntu-using-rdiff-backup.html rdiff-backup Setp Tutorial]
+
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/backup-ubuntu-using-rdiff-backup.html rdiff-backup安装指南]
  
 
=== 游戏 ===
 
=== 游戏 ===
  
==== Frozen Bubble ====
+
==== 冰冻泡泡<br> ====
  
To install Frozen Bubble simply run:
+
要安装冰冻泡泡游戏,运行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
 
  sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  
or use Synaptic Package Manager under System &gt; Administration menu, to locate and install the package.
+
或者使用 系统 &gt; 管理工具 下的新利得软件包管理器,找到它并安装。
  
==== How to solve Sudoku ====
+
==== 如何解数独 ====
  
There is a simple [http://tamal.nath.googlepages.com/sudoku.pl Perl script] for solving gnome-sudoku. It does not support trial-and-error.
+
这里有一个简单的 [http://tamal.nath.googlepages.com/sudoku.pl Perl script] 来帮助您解数独。它不支持 trial-and-error.
  
==== Super Nintendo Emulator (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64 ====
+
==== &nbsp; 超级任天堂模拟器 (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64 ====
  
* Read [[|#General Notes]]
+
* 阅读[[|#General Notes]]
  
''For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744''
+
''需要支持或提问,请查阅 http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744''
  
''ZSNES 1.51 is included in the Official Gutsy i386 repos. However, there is no official AMD64 version, and the i386 version is known to have issues in Gutsy (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=571666). There is a workaround available for i386 users who are experiencing this error (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=3604026&amp;postcount=22).''
+
''ZSNES 1.51 已经被Gutsy官方 i386 软件仓库收录。尽管这样,它还没有官方的 AMD64 版本。i386 version is known to have issues in Gutsy (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=571666). There is a workaround available for i386 users who are experiencing this error (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=3604026&amp;postcount=22).''
  
* Add a 3rd Party Repository
+
* 加入第三方软件仓库
  
 
  echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
 
  echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
 
sudo apt-get update
 
  
* Install using one of the lines below
+
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update
  
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #for amd64 users
+
* 使用下面命令行中的其中一行完成安装
sudo apt-get install zsnes #for everyone else
+
  
* Applications &gt; Games &gt; zsnes or zsnes32
+
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #专供 amd64 用户
  
==== Playstation Emulator (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64 ====
+
sudo apt-get install zsnes #供所有其他用户
  
* Read [[|#General Notes]]
+
* 应用程序 &gt; 游戏 &gt; zsnes 或 zsnes32
  
''For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097''
+
==== 索尼PS模拟器 (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64 ====
  
* Add a 3rd Party Repository
+
* 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]
 +
 
 +
''需要支持或提问,请查看 http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097''
 +
 
 +
* 加入第三方软件仓库
  
 
  echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
 
  echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
 
sudo apt-get update
 
  
* Install using one of the lines below
+
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update
 +
 
 +
* 使用下面的其中一个命令行完成安装
 +
 
 +
sudo apt-get install psx32 #专供 amd64 用户
  
sudo apt-get install psx32 #for amd64 users
+
sudo apt-get install psx #供其他所有用户
sudo apt-get install psx #for everyone else
+
  
* Applications &gt; Games &gt; pSX or pSX32
+
* 应用程序 &gt; 游戏 &gt; pSX pSX32
  
==== KDE games ====
+
==== KDE 游戏<br> ====
  
To install the games from KDE 3 (recommended for Kubuntu users), install the package kdegames. This can be done with:
+
安装 KDE3 中的自带游戏 (Kubuntu 用户无须安装)。安装 kdegames 软件包。这可以通过输入下面的命令完成:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install kdegames
 
  sudo apt-get install kdegames
第604行: 第549行:
 
=== CD/DVD ===
 
=== CD/DVD ===
  
==== How to rip a DVD video ====
+
==== 怎样提取DVD视频 ====
  
dvd::rip is a full featured DVD copy program written in Perl. It provides an easy to use but feature-rich Gtk+ GUI to control almost all aspects of the ripping and transcoding process. It uses the widely known video processing swissknife transcode and many other Open Source tools.
+
dvd::rip 是用Perl编写的全功能DVD复制程序。它提供了一个简单易用而又功能丰富的图形用户界面,以此来控制视频提取和编码转换的几乎所有方面。他使用知名的视频处理程序swissknife编码转换和其他许多开源工具。
  
 
  sudo apt-get install dvdrip
 
  sudo apt-get install dvdrip
  
==== How to burn video DVD ====
+
==== 怎样刻录DVD视频 ====
  
dvdauthor is a program that will generate a DVD movie from a valid mpeg2 stream that should play when you put it in a DVD player.
+
dvdauthor 是一个可以从有效的mpeg2视频流生成可以在DVD播放器里播放的DVD影片的程序。
  
 
  sudo apt-get install dvdauthor
 
  sudo apt-get install dvdauthor
  
==== How to burn a CD/DVD ====
+
==== 怎样刻录CD/DVD ====
  
nautilus-cd-burner is a basic and pre-installed program to write a CD or DVD. Serpentine is a pre-installed audio CD creator program. Serpentine can convert flac and mp3 on the fly, when making audio cds. [http://www.nero.com/ena/linux3.html nerolinux] is a non-free CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD recorder. k3b is a great CD/DVD writing tool for KDE (ideal for Kubuntu users). But if you are looking for GTK/Gnome alternatives, then [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/gnome/brasero brasero], [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/otherosfs/gcdw cdw/gcdw], [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/sound/gcdmaster gcdmaster], [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/gnome/graveman graveman] and [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/gnome/gnomebaker gnomebaker] might impress you.
+
nautilus-cd-burner是一款初级的,预安装的用来刻写CD或者DVD的程序。Serpentine是一款预安装的音频CD创建程序。Serpentine在制作音频CD时,可以实时转换flac和mp3格式。 [http://www.nero.com/ena/linux3.html nerolinux] 是一款非免费的CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD刻录软件。k3b是一款出色的KDE下的CD/DVD刻写工具(Kubuntu 用户的理想选择). 不过如果您要在 GTK/Gnome平台下寻找替代品,那么或许您会喜欢 [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/gnome/brasero brasero], [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/otherosfs/gcdw cdw/gcdw], [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/sound/gcdmaster gcdmaster], [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/gnome/graveman graveman] and [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/gnome/gnomebaker gnomebaker]
  
[http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/otherosfs/dvdisaster dvdisaster] provides a margin of safety against data loss on CD and DVD media caused by scratches or aging media. It creates error correction data which is used to recover unreadable sectors if the disc becomes damaged at a later time.
+
[http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/otherosfs/dvdisaster dvdisaster]为由于刮伤和老化所造成的CD和DVD数据丢失提供了保全的余地。如果光碟是在最近损坏的,它可以生成修复数据用来恢复无法读取的区段。
  
 
=== 互联网 ===
 
=== 互联网 ===
  
==== Browser Plug-ins ====
+
==== 浏览器插件 ====
  
Ubuntu automatically installs plug-ins required to browse a site in Firefox. But if you want to install plug-ins run the following in Terminal:
+
Ubuntu 会在Firefox中自动安装浏览站点所需的插件。不过如果您想安装插件,可以在终端里执行以下命令:
  
For Java plug-in:
+
安装 Java 插件:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin
 
  sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin
  
For Flash plug-in:
+
安装 Flash 插件:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
 
  sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
  
Or if you want to support the open source flash plugin:
+
或者您想支持开源flash插件:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash
  
For VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):
+
安装 VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc
  
For MPlayer plug-in (automatically installs MPlayer also):
+
安装 MPlayer 插件 (同时自动安装 MPlayer ):
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
  
For Real player plug-in (automatically installs helix-player):
+
安装 Real player 插件 (同时自动安装 helix-player):
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player
  
For kaffeine plug-in (automatically installs kaffeine also):
+
安装 kaffeine 安装 (同时自动安装 kaffeine ):
  
 
  sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla
 
  sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla
  
For image-zoom plug-in (to zoom images in a page):
+
安装 image-zoom 插件 (用于在页面内缩放图像):
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom
  
For adblock plug-in (to block ads in a web page):
+
安装 adblock 插件 (用于屏蔽网页中的广告):
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock
 
  sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock
  
Gutsy includes the option to add extensions to Firefox through the Ubuntu repositories. The option to add these extensions is included by default. To see and add Ubuntu Add-ons:
+
Gutsy包含从 Ubuntu 源中向Firefox添加扩展的选项。添加扩展的选项是默认包含的。如需查看和添加 Ubuntu Add-ons:
  
* In Firefox, Go to Tools &gt; Add-ons
+
* 在Firefox中,进入Tools&gt; Add-ons
* Click "Get Ubuntu Addons"
+
* 点击"Get Ubuntu Addons"
* To see all available add-ons, click the list next to "Show:" and choose "All Available Applications"
+
* 查看所有可用的add-ons,点击 "Show:" 下方的列表并选择 "All Available Applications"
* Choose whichever add-ons you want, and click "Apply Changes"
+
* 选择任意您需要的add-ons,并点击 "Apply Changes"
* You can see which add-ons you've installed in the normal Firefox add-on box.
+
* 您可以从通常的Firefox add-on 列表中查看您已经安装了哪个add-ons。
  
(Note: All Ubuntu add-ons are also available through the Synaptic package manager.)
+
(提示: 所有的 Ubuntu add-ons 同样都可以通过新立得包管理器中获得。)
  
 
===== Shockwave =====
 
===== Shockwave =====
  
''There is no version of Shockwave for Ubuntu/Linux but WINE can be used to run it.'' ''This method will result in 2 Firefox Browsers installed on the computer.'' ''Only use the WINE version when using a website that requires it.'' ''The native version of Firefox will give better computer performance, so it should used in all other occurrences.''
+
''''Shockwave''''''没有相应的 Ubuntu/Linux 版本,但是可以用WINE来运行 这个方法将使得计算机中安装2个Firefox浏览器 仅当网站需要时才使用WINE的版本 原始版本的Firefox能提供更好的计算机性能, 所以在其他情况下都应该是用它''
  
* Install WINE
+
* 安装 WINE
* Download and install Firefox for Windows
+
* 下载并安装Windows版Firefox
* Download and install Shockwave for Windows
+
* 下载并安装Windows版Shockwave
  
==== Download Manager (Downloader for X) ====
+
==== 下载管理器 (X中的下载器) ====
  
To install Downloader for X simply run:
+
要安装X中的下载器,只需简单执行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install d4x
 
  sudo apt-get install d4x
  
or use Synaptic Package Manager under System &gt; Administration menu, to locate and install the "d4x" package.
+
或者使用系统 &gt; 管理菜单中的新立得包管理器来寻找和安装 "d4x" 包。
  
==== FTP client (FileZilla) ====
+
==== FTP 客户端 (FileZilla) ====
  
FileZilla is a powerful FTP client that came from windows enviroment. Reaching its third version it became cross-platform and is available through the Ubuntu Gutsy Repositories.
+
FileZilla 是一个从windows环境下移植的功能强大的FTP客户端。它发布到第三个版本并成为跨平台的软件,可以通过 Ubuntu Gutsy源获得。
  
To install FileZilla FTP client simply run:
+
要安装 FileZilla FTP客户端,只需简单执行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install filezilla
 
  sudo apt-get install filezilla
  
or use Synaptic Package Manager under System &gt; Administration menu, to locate and install the "filezilla" package.
+
或者使用系统 &gt; 管理菜单中新立得包管理器来寻找和安装 "filezilla" 包。
  
==== Configuring Evolution for Gmail ====
+
==== 为Gmail配置Evolution ====
  
Visit http://mail.google.com/mail/ and click settings (should be in top right corner). Select Forwarding and POP/IMAP.
+
访问http://mail.google.com/mail/ 点击设置 (由商家). 选择转发和 POP/IMAP.
  
* If you want to use POP, select either "Enable POP for all mail (even mail that's already been downloaded)" or "Enable POP only for mail that arrives from now on".
+
* 如果你想使用POP协议,选择"针对所有邮件启用 POP(包括已经下载的邮件)""对从现在起所收到的邮件启用 POP"中的一个。
* If you want to use IMAP, select "Enable IMAP".
+
* 如果你想使用IMAP协议,选择"启用 IMAP"
  
Save changes.
+
保存更改.
  
Open Evolution from Applications -&gt; Internet -&gt; Evolution Mail. If no mail account has been created before, a mail account setup wizard will automatically be opened. Otherwise open it from Edit -&gt; preferences -&gt; Mail Accounts -&gt; Add. Click Forward. Enter your email address for Gmail (including @gmail.com). Click Forward.
+
从程序 -&gt; Internet -&gt; Evolution Mail 打开Evolution。如果以前没有建立过邮件帐户,系统将自动打开邮件帐户建立向导。从Edit(编辑) -&gt; preferences(选项) -&gt; Mail Accounts(邮件帐户) -&gt; Add(添加) 打开简历邮件帐户向导。点击 Forward(下一步)。输入你的Gmail地址 (包括 @gmail.com)。点击 Forward(下一步)。
  
* If you have enabled POP from Gmail set "Server Type" to POP, "Server" to pop.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".
+
*如果你想通过POP访问Gmail,设置"Server Type(服务类型)" 为 POP, "Server(服务器地址)" pop.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" "SSL encryption(SSL加密)".
* If you have enabled IMAP from Gmail, set "Server Type" to IMAP, "Server" to imap.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".
+
*如果你想通过IMAP访问Gmail,设置"Server Type(服务类型)" IMAP, "Server(服务器地址)" imap.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" "SSL encryption(SSL加密)".
  
Click Forward. Click Forward. Set "Server" to smtp.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption". Click Forward. Click Forward. Click Apply.
+
点击 Forward(下一步)。点击 Forward(下一步)。设置"Server(smtp服务器地址)" smtp.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" "SSL encryption(SSL加密)"。点击 Forward(下一步)。点击 Forward(下一步)。点击应用。
  
Note that IMAP support for GMAIL is being rolled-out currently (Oct. 2007) but is not available to everyone with a GMAIL account yet. So use POP until IMAP is available for every user.
+
注意:GMAIL 对 IMAP的支持开始大量的普及(Oct. 2007) 但是并不是所有的用户的账号都已经支持,所以建议使用POP协议知道所有的用户账号到支持IMAP协议.
 +
译者语:通过浏览GMAIL帮助中心并没有发现IMAP的支持还没有应用到所有用户,并尝试开通了IMAP服务发现服务正常。(May. 2008)
  
 
==== SwiftFox ====
 
==== SwiftFox ====
第747行: 第693行:
 
* There is also an [[http://www.getswiftfox.com/installer.htm installer]] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.
 
* There is also an [[http://www.getswiftfox.com/installer.htm installer]] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.
  
==== Azureus (Java BitTorrent client) ====
+
==== Azureus (Java BitTorrent 客户端)&nbsp;<br> ====
  
The simplest way to install Azureus is:
+
安装Azureus的简单方法是: sudo apt-get install [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/net/azureus azureus] 但是它有相当多的依赖关系。 [http://azureus.sourceforge.net/howto_linux.php 这里]讨论了一个替代的方法。另外,您创建一个文件 /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop 在其中添加下列命令行使得它出现在主菜单中。<br>
  
sudo apt-get install [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/net/azureus azureus]
+
<br>
 
+
<pre>[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8 Type=Application Terminal=false Name=Azureus Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus Comment=Java BitTorrent client Categories=Application;Network; MimeType=application/x-bittorrent; Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png</pre>
But it has lots of dependencies. An alternate method is discussed [http://azureus.sourceforge.net/howto_linux.php here]. Additionally you can create a file /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop containing the following lines to make it appear in the main menu:
+
<br>
 
+
[Desktop Entry]
+
Encoding=UTF-8
+
Type=Application
+
Terminal=false
+
Name=Azureus
+
Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus
+
Comment=Java BitTorrent client
+
Categories=Application;Network;
+
MimeType=application/x-bittorrent;
+
Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png
+
  
(here it is assumed that azureus is installed in /usr/local directory)
+
(这里假设 azureus 安装在 /usr/local directory)
  
Update: A brand-new Azureus package is now available in gutsy-backports, which is highly preferable to the version in the main repositories. It fixes many stability problems and is compiled using icedtea/Java 7. By the time you read this, it may be available in the main repositories. Therefore you might want to make sure you have the gutsy-backports repository enabled before installing azureus via apt-get.
+
更新:一个全新的Azureus包现已可以从gutsy-backports获得,相比main源中的版本好的多。它修复了许多稳定性问题并且使用icedtea/Java 7编译。当您阅读此内容时,它可能已经可以从main源中获得了。因而,您应该在通过apt-get安装azureus之前确认使用了gutsy-backports源。
  
==== Deluge (A lightweight BitTorrent client written in python) ====
+
==== Deluge ( 一个用python编写的轻量级的BitTorrent客户端) ====
  
If you want a client with lower memory and CPU usage than Azureus you might want to try out Deluge. However, due to stability problems with the version available in the [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/net/deluge-torrent Ubuntu repository], it's probably better to install the latest version using the handy Gutsy-specific package from [http://deluge-torrent.org/downloads-ubuntu the official Deluge website]. To install, just click on the debian package for your version and architecture ('''i386''' for 32-bit systems and '''x86_64''' for 64-bit systems) and choose to run it with GDebi package installer.
+
如果您需要一个比Azureus占用更少内存和CPU时间的客户端,那么您可以尝试Deluge。然而由于从[http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/net/deluge-torrent Ubuntu ]获取的版本存在稳定性问题,那么比较好的选择是使用[http://deluge-torrent.org/downloads-ubuntu Deluge官方网站] 上现成的Gutsy专用包来安装最新的版本。安装只需点击和您的版本和系统架构(“i386”对应32位系统而“x86_64"对应64位系统)对应的Debian包并选择使用GDebi package installer来安装它。
  
 
==== DC++ client (Linuxdcpp) ====
 
==== DC++ client (Linuxdcpp) ====
第792行: 第727行:
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/install-mplayer-and-multimedia-codecs-libdvdcss2w32codecs-in-ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon.html Mplayer 和 Multimedia Codecs的安装指导手册]
 
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/install-mplayer-and-multimedia-codecs-libdvdcss2w32codecs-in-ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon.html Mplayer 和 Multimedia Codecs的安装指导手册]
  
* 从[http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=185512 这里] 下载 [http://smplayer.sourceforge.net/ SMPlayer] (MPlayer的一个很棒的前端) 然后双击安装它。 smplayer这个前端也可以在软件包管理器中安装。
+
* 从[http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=185512 这里] 下载 [http://smplayer.sourceforge.net/ SMPlayer] (MPlayer的一个很棒的前端) 然後双击安装它。 smplayer这个前端也可以在软件包管理器中安装。
  
 
===== &nbsp; 关于64位版本 Mplayer 对 wmv9 格式支持问题<br> =====
 
===== &nbsp; 关于64位版本 Mplayer 对 wmv9 格式支持问题<br> =====
  
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; AMD64版本的Mplayer不能正确的播放wmv9格式的文件。 要播放wmv9,你需要安装32位版本的mplayer, 和所有需要的解码器.。相较于我新安装的Gutsy,我不需要额外安装它所依赖的库文件,这让配置mplayer的工作简单多了。这就是说,做完这些步骤后你就可以随时观赏wmv9的文件了。
+
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; AMD64版本的Mplayer不能正确的播放wmv9格式的文件。 要播放wmv9,您需要安装32位版本的mplayer, 和所有需要的解码器.。相较于我新安装的Gutsy,我不需要额外安装它所依赖的库文件,这让配置mplayer的工作简单多了。这就是说,做完这些步骤後您就可以随时观赏wmv9的文件了。
  
 
'''下载&nbsp; mplayer32 for Edgy 的版本 (被证明能稳定地工作) 放到临时的文件夹中。'''
 
'''下载&nbsp; mplayer32 for Edgy 的版本 (被证明能稳定地工作) 放到临时的文件夹中。'''
  
 
  mkdir mplayer32temp
 
  mkdir mplayer32temp
cd mplayer32temp
 
wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb
 
  
'''解开你刚才下载的这个压缩包,放到合适的地方''' ''(按 'n'当 问你是否要为文件更换位置)''
+
cd mplayer32temp wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb
 +
 
 +
'''解开您刚才下载的这个压缩包,放到合适的地方''' ''(按 'n'当 问您是否要为文件更换位置)''
  
 
  sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./
 
  sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./
sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/
 
sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/
 
  
'''从mplayerrhq 获取最新的 win32 codecs (下面命令中是10月7日版本, 2007), 解压缩然后安装''' ''(同样, 在问到更换位置时按'n' )''
+
sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/ sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/
 +
 
 +
'''从mplayerrhq 获取最新的 win32 codecs (下面命令中是10月7日版本, 2007), 解压缩然後安装''' ''(同样, 在问到更换位置时按'n' )''
  
 
  wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2
 
  wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2
tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2
+
 
sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/
+
tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2 sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/
  
 
'''播放 wmv9 影片.(享受它)'''
 
'''播放 wmv9 影片.(享受它)'''
第839行: 第774行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mpg321
 
  sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
+
<pre>sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras  
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install pulseaudio  
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat  
sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins</pre>
 
+
 
这个方法可能会破坏Skype软件的声音系统
 
这个方法可能会破坏Skype软件的声音系统
  
你也能通过下面的步骤实现鼠标滑过预览:
+
您也能通过下面的步骤实现鼠标滑过预览:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mpg321
 
  sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd
+
<pre>sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd  
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools  
sudo apt-get install esound
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install esound  
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras</pre>
 
+
 
这样系统中的Skype会保持正常功能
 
这样系统中的Skype会保持正常功能
  
第872行: 第805行:
 
  sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee
 
  sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee
  
==== How to encode/decode audios ====
+
==== 怎样编码/解码音频 ====
  
There is a great command line tool, sox which not just a ordinary encoder/decoder but a good composer. Read its manual for more information.
+
sox是一个很棒的命令行工具,它不但是一个普通的编码/解码器而且还是一个很好的合成器。阅读它的手册以获得更多的信息。
  
 
''Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output''
 
''Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output''
第880行: 第813行:
 
  sudo apt-get install sox
 
  sudo apt-get install sox
  
sox cannot handle Real Audio format. For that you need mplayer which converts a .rm file to a .wav file and then use sox to convert wave file to other file.
+
<br>sox不能处理Real&nbsp;Audio格式,您需要mplayer来把.rm文件转换成.wav文件,然后使用sox把波形文件转换成其它格式的文件。&nbsp;
  
 
  mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm
 
  mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm
  
==== How to encode/decode videos ====
+
==== 怎样编码/解码视频 ====
  
mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora, etc. are some video converting tools. Read their manuals for information.
+
mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora,&nbsp;等使一些视频转换工具。 阅读他们的手册获取信息
  
 
  sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora
 
  sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora
  
==== How to edit audios ====
+
==== 怎样编辑音频 ====
  
 
  sudo apt-get install lmms
 
  sudo apt-get install lmms
sudo apt-get install audacity
+
<pre>sudo apt-get install audacity</pre>
 
+
==== 怎样编辑视频 ====
==== How to edit videos ====
+
  
 
  sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video
 
  sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video
第903行: 第835行:
 
Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech
 
Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech
  
=== Programming / Web Development ===
+
=== 编程/网页开发&nbsp; ===
  
 
==== Quanta Plus ====
 
==== Quanta Plus ====
  
(Quanta is a KDE application, but also works on GNOME.) To install Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc Web Creation Software:
+
(Quanta是一个KDE应用程序,但也能在工作在GNOME中) 安装Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc 网站创建软件:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia
 
  sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia
第915行: 第847行:
 
==== Netbeans IDE ====
 
==== Netbeans IDE ====
  
Netbeans is a platform independent IDE for Java. But it also supports C/C++, Ruby, portals and lots of other stuffs as plug-ins. At the point of writing, version 5.5.1 is the latest stable release and can be installed by:
+
Netbeans&nbsp;是一个平台非依赖的Java&nbsp;集成开发环境。但它也能以插件的形式支持C/C++, Ruby, portals 和其他一些工具。从编写的角度看,5.5版是最新的稳定版本并且可以如下方式安装:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5
 
  sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5
  
Alternately you can download [http://www.netbeans.org/community/releases/60/index.html Netbeans 6.0] and install it manually. The size of the installation package varies from 11 MB to 200 MB.
+
或者您可以下载 [http://www.netbeans.org/community/releases/60/index.html Netbeans 6.0] 并手动安装它。安装包的大小会从 11 MB&nbsp;到 200 MB不等。
  
===== Netbeans with Web &amp; Java EE pack =====
+
===== Netbeans Web &amp; Java EE 集成包<br> =====
  
If you want to use NetBeans for web development and want to integrate with Java EE, download the "Netbeans with Web &amp; Java EE" pack. The plug-in mechanism of installing additional modules are not recommended as it installs it on user directory (~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/) rather than system-wide installation directory (/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/).
+
如果您想使用NetBeans来进行网站开发并集成Java EE,下载 "Netbeans with Web &amp; Java EE" 集成包,对于安装附加模块的插件机制不受推荐,因为它将其安装在用户目录(~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/)而不是系统范围内的安装目录(/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/)&nbsp;<br>
  
Netbeans with Web &amp; Java EE pack comes with 2 built in runtime environments:
+
Netbeans Web &amp; Java EE 集成包带有2个内建的运行环境:
  
 
* GlassFish V2 Build 58g
 
* GlassFish V2 Build 58g
 
* Apache Tomcat 6.0.14
 
* Apache Tomcat 6.0.14
  
Those are ideal for both development and production use. Thus you do not have to install either Sun Java Application Server of Apache Tomcat separately. Also uninstalling Netbeans will not uninstall them. You have to uninstall them separately.
+
他们对开发和出品都十分有利。这样您就不用分别安装Sun Java Application Server和Apache Tomcat。同样,卸载Netbeans将不会卸载他们。您需要分别卸载他们。
  
But in case you want to install the servers separately, you typically have to run Netbeans as root. Alternately, you can also change the configuration files' owner/group and permissions of Tomcat and GlassFish to work with Netbeans.
+
但如果您想要另外安装服务器,通常您需要以root身份运行Netbeans。或者您也可以改变Tomcat和GlassFish配置文件的用户/组和权限以使他们和Netbeans协同工作。
  
 
==== Eclipse IDE ====
 
==== Eclipse IDE ====
  
[http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/devel/eclipse Eclipse IDE] is an alternative of [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/devel/netbeans5.5 Netbeans IDE]. Actually, it is somewhat more popular among Linux users. You can install eclipse directly from [http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/ Eclipse website] or can install it using apt-get:
+
[http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/devel/eclipse Eclipse IDE] [http://packages.ubuntu.com/gutsy/devel/netbeans5.5 Netbeans IDE] 之外的另一个选择。事实上,它或许在Linux用户中更流行。您可以从 [http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/ Eclipse website] 直接安装它或者使用 apt-get来安装:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install eclipse
 
  sudo apt-get install eclipse
第942行: 第874行:
 
==== Anjuta IDE ====
 
==== Anjuta IDE ====
  
[http://anjuta.sourceforge.net/ Anjuta] is an IDE used primarily for C/C++ development. Not as robust as other itegrated development environments. However, tt does feature some useful plugins that provide functionality that most other IDE's have. (GUI development, project wizards, etc.)
+
[http://anjuta.sourceforge.net/ Anjuta] 是一个主要用作 C/C++ 开发的集成开发环境。不如其他集成开发环境那样可靠。然而,它仍有一些有用的插件提供了大多数其他集成开发环境所具有的功能。(GUI 开发, 项目向导,等)
  
 
  sudo apt-get install anjuta
 
  sudo apt-get install anjuta
  
=== Utilities ===
+
=== 实用工具 ===
  
==== Compression tools ====
+
==== 压缩工具<br> ====
  
Zip, Gzip and Bzip2 are the most popular compression tools available in almost every every Linux. But of late two new compression tools available: p7zip (http://7-zip.org/), ace and rar (http://www.rarlab.com/). 7-zip is a open-source project, but rar and ace are not.
+
Zip, Gzip Bzip2 是几乎所有Linux上都提供的最流行的压缩工具。但也有较新的两种压缩工具可供使用:p7zip (http://7-zip.org/), ace and rar (http://www.rarlab.com/)7-zip 是一个开源项目,而 rar and ace 不是。
  
 
  sudo apt-get install rar unrar
 
  sudo apt-get install rar unrar
sudo apt-get install p7zip-full
+
<pre>sudo apt-get install p7zip-full  
sudo apt-get install unace
+
</pre><pre>sudo apt-get install unace</pre>
 
+
Ark 是KDE中的压缩工具并支持包括rar在内的更多格式。
Ark is the compression tool for kde, and has support for more formats including rar.
+
  
 
  sudo apt-get install ark
 
  sudo apt-get install ark
  
==== Clipboard Manager (Glipper) ====
+
==== &nbsp;剪贴板管理器(Glipper) ====
  
To install Glipper simply run:
+
要安装Glipper只需简单运行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install glipper
 
  sudo apt-get install glipper
  
or use Synaptic Package Manager under System &gt; Administration menu, to locate and install the "glipper" package.
+
或者使用System &gt; Administration 菜单下中的Synaptic Package Manager来搜索和安装 "glipper" 包。<br>
  
==== Password Manager (KeePassX) ====
+
==== 密码管理器 (KeePassX) ====
  
KeePass is a crossplatform password manager. To install it simply run:
+
KeePass是一个跨平台的密码管理器。安装它只需简单运行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install keepassx
 
  sudo apt-get install keepassx
  
or use Synaptic Package Manager under System &gt; Administration menu, to locate and install the "keepassx" package.
+
或者使用System &gt; Administration 菜单下中的Synaptic Package Manager来搜索和安装 "keepassx" 包。
  
==== How to fix/integrate bluetooth with nautilus ====
+
==== 怎样修复/集成nautilus的蓝牙功能 ====
  
On Some systems bluetooth "Browse Device" fuction doesn't work properly.
+
在某些系统中蓝牙设备的 "Browse Device" 功能不能正常工作。
  
To Fix This:
+
要修复这个问题:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp
 
  sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp
  
or
+
或者
  
 
  sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp
 
  sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp
第995行: 第926行:
  
 
  echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
 
  echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get update
+
<pre>wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get update sudo aptitude install googleearth</pre>
sudo aptitude install googleearth
+
除此之外您还可以直接从Google下载安装程序进行安装:
 
+
除此之外你还可以直接从Google下载安装程序进行安装:
+
  
[http://earth.google.com/download-earth.html 下载] Google Earth到你的桌面. 打开终端并运行n:
+
[http://earth.google.com/download-earth.html 下载] Google Earth到您的桌面. 打开终端并运行n:
  
 
  chmod +x Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
 
  chmod +x Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
+
<pre>sudo Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin</pre>
 
+
 
按照说明完成安装. 卸载Google earth,执行以下命令:
 
按照说明完成安装. 卸载Google earth,执行以下命令:
  
  sudo su
+
  sudo su /opt/google-earth/uninstall
/opt/google-earth/uninstall
+
  
 
==== 怎样安装 Picasa (Google 开发的照片管理工具) ====
 
==== 怎样安装 Picasa (Google 开发的照片管理工具) ====
  
Picasa 是一款帮助你立即查找、编辑和共享在你的电脑上的所有照片的软件. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:
+
Picasa 是一款帮助您立即查找、编辑和共享在您的电脑上的所有照片的软件. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:
  
 
* [http://picasa.google.com/linux/download.html 下载] 直接下载 Debian/Ubuntu (DEB包) 安装.
 
* [http://picasa.google.com/linux/download.html 下载] 直接下载 Debian/Ubuntu (DEB包) 安装.
* 访问 http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/ 阅读怎样添加 Google 源的说明.然後运行:
+
* 访问 http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/ 阅读怎样添加 Google 源的说明.然后运行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install picasa
 
  sudo apt-get install picasa
第1,022行: 第949行:
 
* 安装Windows (需要WINE支持).
 
* 安装Windows (需要WINE支持).
  
==== How to install Google Desktop (search utility) ====
+
==== 如何安装 Google Desktop ====
  
Google Desktop is a desktop search application that gives you easy access to information on your computer and from the web. Desktop makes searching your own email, files, music, photos, and more as easy as searching the web with Google. You can download Google Desktop in two ways:
+
Google Desktop (search utility)<br>
  
* Download and install the Debian package directly from http://desktop.google.com/en/linux/download.html
+
<br>Google Desktop 是一个桌面搜索应用程序,它可以让您很容易的获取您计算机和网络当中的信息.
* Visit http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/ and see the instructions about how to add Google repository. Then run:
+
 
 +
<br>Desktop 让搜索您自己的电子邮件、文件、音乐、照片变得如同使用Google搜索网络一样简单。您通过下面两种途径下载Google Desktop:
 +
 
 +
*
 +
* 直接从
 +
* http://desktop.google.com/en/linux/download.html 下载和安装Debian package。
 +
* 访问[http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/][http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/] 参阅如何添加Google repository的说明。然后运行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux
 
  sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux
  
==== How to install ntop (network monitoring utility) ====
+
==== 怎样安装 ntop (网络监控工具) ====
  
Ntop is a network monitoring utility. You can monitor local devices as well as devices with Netflow output (like a Cisco router). It's very easy to install too, open a terminal and type:
+
Ntop 是一个网络监控工具。您可以监控本地的设备以及有 Netflow 输出的设备 (例如一个 Cisco 路由器)。它也很容易安装,打开一个终端并输入:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install ntop
 
  sudo apt-get install ntop
  
Now that it is installed, you have to do some basic setup. Once again, in the terminal, type:
+
现在它已经安装好了,您需要做一些基本的设置。再一次在终端中输入:
  
 
  sudo ntop
 
  sudo ntop
  
You will be asked for a password, and then to confirm the password. This will be the admin password for the ntop web interface. Next, we want to install "Dot", which is a part of the "Graphviz" package:
+
您会被要求输入一个密码,然后确认这个密码。这将成为ntop网页界面的管理员密码。接下来,我们需要安装 "Dot", 它是 "Graphviz" 包的一部分:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install graphviz
 
  sudo apt-get install graphviz
  
Now, again in the terminal type:
+
现在,再一次在终端中输入:
  
 
  sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start
 
  sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start
  
Thats it! ntop is running! Try browsing to http://127.0.0.1:3000 to get started. You will have to add the path to dot to the ntop configuration.
+
行了! ntop 运行了! 尝试浏览 http://127.0.0.1:3000 来开始吧。您将需要把dot的路径添加到 ntop 的设置中。
  
 
  Admin -&gt; Configure (Enter admin user/pass) -&gt; Preferences
 
  Admin -&gt; Configure (Enter admin user/pass) -&gt; Preferences
  
At the bottom add a new preference:
+
在最后加入一个新的设置:
  
 
  dot.path /usr/bin/dot
 
  dot.path /usr/bin/dot
  
You should now have a network map for the local interface under IP -&gt; Local -&gt; Network Traffic Map
+
您现在应该可以从IP -&gt; Local -&gt; Network Traffic Map 得到一个网络的图像了。 <br>
  
Visit http://www.ntop.org/ for more information.
+
访问 http://www.ntop.org/ 获取更多信息。
  
==== How to install applications for study of religious texts ====
+
==== 怎样安装经文学习软件 ====
  
* For study of Bible see [http://gnomesword.sourceforge.net/ GnomeSword]
+
* 学习 圣经 请查看 [http://gnomesword.sourceforge.net/ GnomeSword]
* For study of Quran see [http://sourceforge.net/projects/zekr/ Zekr]
+
* 学习 古兰经 请查看 [http://sourceforge.net/projects/zekr/ Zekr]
  
===== How to install Gnomesword (Bible study program) =====
+
===== 怎样安装 Gnomesword (圣经学习程序) =====
  
* Read [[|#General Notes]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E4.B8.80.E8.88.AC.E8.AF.B4.E6.98.8E 一般说明]
* Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E6.9B.B4.E6.96.B0.E5.8D.87.E7.BA.A7.E5.92.8C.E5.AE.89.E8.A3.85.E8.BD.AF.E4.BB.B6 更新升级和安装软件]<br>
* This installs the english version of the program.
+
* 这是安装此程序的英文版本:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
 
  sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
  
* If you require other languages type:
+
* 如果您需要其他的语言类型:
  
 
  sudo apt-cache search bible
 
  sudo apt-cache search bible
  
* Take a look at the sword-language-pack's and the sword-text's for additional languages and install as needed.
+
* 查看类似 sword-language-pack 以及 sword-text 的包来寻找和安装需要的附加语言。
  
Gnomesword is found under Applications--&gt;Accessories.
+
Gnomesword 可以在 Applications--&gt;Accessories 下找到。<br>
  
* Under KDE, use kio-sword instead of Gnomesword:
+
* KDE 中,使用 kio-sword 来替代 Gnomesword:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install kio-sword
 
  sudo apt-get install kio-sword
  
===== How to install a Quran researching tool (Zekr) =====
+
===== 怎样安装古兰经研究工具 (Zekr) =====
  
[http://siahe.com/zekr/ Zekr] is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Quran.
+
[http://siahe.com/zekr/ Zekr] 是一个开放平台的古兰经学习工具,使用它可以简便地浏览和研究古兰经。
  
 
  sudo wget http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/zekr.list  
 
  sudo wget http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/zekr.list  
wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -  
+
<pre>wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-me-quran ttf-sil-scheherazade sudo apt-get install ttf-farsiweb flashplugin-nonfree</pre>
sudo apt-get update  
+
* Zekr 带有附加的古兰经翻译版本,包括波斯语, 乌尔都语, 法语, 俄语, 英语, 土耳其语, 波斯尼亚语, 德语。他们的包名称为zekr-quran-translations-XY,这里 XY 是语言的 ISO 码。 在终端中运行:<br>
sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-me-quran ttf-sil-scheherazade
+
sudo apt-get install ttf-farsiweb flashplugin-nonfree
+
 
+
* Zekr comes with extra Quran translations in Persian, Urdu, French, Russian, English, Turkish, Bosnian, Dutch packaged as zekr-quran-translations-XY where XY is the ISO code of the language. Run
+
  
 
  apt-cache search zekr-quran-translations
 
  apt-cache search zekr-quran-translations
  
in a shell to list them all. Then among the result list choose the appropriate package and install it: For example if you want to install English Quran Translations run the following command:
+
可以列出他们。然后从结果列表中选择适合的包并安装它。例如:如果你想安装英文古兰经则执行以下命令:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install zekr-quran-translations-en
 
  sudo apt-get install zekr-quran-translations-en
  
* For more info see [http://www.siahe.com/zekr/wiki/index.php?title=Installation#Ubuntu.2FDebian Zekr wiki].
+
* 需要更多信息请查看 [http://www.siahe.com/zekr/wiki/index.php?title=Installation#Ubuntu.2FDebian Zekr wiki].
  
==== How to install applications for Education ====
+
==== 怎样安装教育软件 ====
  
 
===== How to install Mnemosyne =====
 
===== How to install Mnemosyne =====
第1,123行: 第1,052行:
  
 
  wget http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz
 
  wget http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz
(correct as of 11 Nov 2007)
+
 
 +
(correct as of 11 Nov 2007)
  
 
Decompress it:
 
Decompress it:
第1,140行: 第1,070行:
  
 
  System =&gt; Preferences =&gt; Main Menu =&gt; Education (or wherever) =&gt; New Item:
 
  System =&gt; Preferences =&gt; Main Menu =&gt; Education (or wherever) =&gt; New Item:
Name: Mnemosyne
+
 
Command: mnemosyne
+
Name: Mnemosyne Command: mnemosyne
  
 
== '''''安全&nbsp;''''' ==
 
== '''''安全&nbsp;''''' ==
第1,148行: 第1,078行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install john
 
  sudo apt-get install john
sudo john /etc/shadow
+
 
 +
sudo john /etc/shadow
  
 
=== 怎样重设ROOT用户的密码 ===
 
=== 怎样重设ROOT用户的密码 ===
第1,155行: 第1,086行:
  
 
  passwd
 
  passwd
+
 
+
<br>
  
 
来修ROOT用的密码
 
来修ROOT用的密码
第1,174行: 第1,105行:
 
==== 怎样安装 Samba 服务器来共享文件以及文件夹<br> ====
 
==== 怎样安装 Samba 服务器来共享文件以及文件夹<br> ====
  
* 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E4.B8.80.E8.88.AC.E8.AF.B4.E6.98.8E 一般说明]
* 阅读 [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E6.9B.B4.E6.96.B0.E5.8D.87.E7.BA.A7.E5.92.8C.E5.AE.89.E8.A3.85.E8.BD.AF.E4.BB.B6 更新升级和安装软件]
  
 
  sudo apt-get install samba smbfs
 
  sudo apt-get install samba smbfs
第1,181行: 第1,112行:
 
==== 怎样添加/修改/删除网络用户 ====
 
==== 怎样添加/修改/删除网络用户 ====
  
* 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E4.B8.80.E8.88.AC.E8.AF.B4.E6.98.8E 一般说明]
* 阅读 [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E6.9B.B4.E6.96.B0.E5.8D.87.E7.BA.A7.E5.92.8C.E5.AE.89.E8.A3.85.E8.BD.AF.E4.BB.B6 更新升级和安装软件]
* To add network user
+
* 要添加<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1200300013968_461"></span><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1200300013968_383"></span><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1200300013968_383"></span>网络用户&nbsp;
** Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete system users]]
+
** 阅读 [[|#How to add/edit/delete system users]]
  
 
  sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
 
  sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
+
<pre>gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers</pre>
 
+
* 将下行添加到新文件中
*
+
** Insert the following line into the new file
+
  
 
  system_username = "network username"
 
  system_username = "network username"
  
*  
+
* 保存编辑过的文件
** Save the edited file
+
* 要<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1200300060468_162"></span><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1200300060468_717"></span><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1200300060468_717"></span>修改网络用户&nbsp;
* To edit network user
+
  
 
  sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
 
  sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  
* To delete network user
+
* 要删除网络用户&nbsp;
  
 
  sudo smbpasswd -x system_username
 
  sudo smbpasswd -x system_username
  
==== How to share home folders with read only or read/write permission (Authentication=Yes) ====
+
==== 如何以只读或读写权限 ====
  
* Read [[|#General Notes]]
+
==== 共享主文件夹(Authentication=Yes)<br> ====
* Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
+
 
 +
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E4.B8.80.E8.88.AC.E8.AF.B4.E6.98.8E 一般说明]
 +
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E6.80.8E.E6.A0.B7.E5.AE.89.E8.A3.85_Samba_.E6.9C.8D.E5.8A.A1.E5.99.A8.E6.9D.A5.E5.85.B1.E4.BA.AB.E6.96.87.E4.BB.B6.E4.BB.A5.E5.8F.8A.E6.96.87.E4.BB.B6.E5.A4.B9 怎样安装 Samba 服务器来共享文件以及文件夹]
  
 
  sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
 
  sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
+
<pre>gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf</pre>
 
+
* 找到这一行&nbsp;
* Find this line
+
  
 
  ...
 
  ...
  ; security = user
+
  security = user  
 
  ...
 
  ...
  
* Replace with the following lines
+
* 用下面两行替换
  
  security = user
+
  security = user  
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
+
username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  
* Remove the&nbsp;; in front of the following lines (there will text in between explaining what they do):
+
* 移除下面每行前的分号“;(there will text in between explaining what they do):<br>
  
  ;[homes]
+
  ;[homes]&nbsp;;comment = Home&nbsp;
;comment = Home Directories
+
;Directories&nbsp;
  ;browseable = no
+
  ;browseable = no&nbsp;
  ;valid users = %S
+
  ;valid users = %S&nbsp;
 
  ;writable = yes
 
  ;writable = yes
  
*  
+
* 如果希望其他网络用户有权编辑文件夹,则修改以下行
** If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder then change
+
  
  # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
+
  # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next  
  # parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
+
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.&nbsp;
&nbsp;; writable = no
+
; writable = no
  
*  
+
* 用下面一行代替&nbsp;
** Replace with the following lines
+
  
 
  writable = yes
 
  writable = yes
  
* Save the edited file
+
* 保存编辑过的文件<br>
* Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
+
* 阅读 [http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Ubuntu:Gutsy/zh#.E6.80.8E.E6.A0.B7.E6.B7.BB.E5.8A.A0.2F.E4.BF.AE.E6.94.B9.2F.E5.88.A0.E9.99.A4.E7.BD.91.E7.BB.9C.E7.94.A8.E6.88.B7 怎样添加/修改/删除网络用户]
  
  sudo testparm
+
  sudo testparm sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
+
  
 
==== How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes) ====
 
==== How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes) ====
第1,255行: 第1,181行:
  
 
  sudo mkdir /home/group
 
  sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
+
 
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
+
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
+
  
 
* Find this line
 
* Find this line
  
...
 
; security = user
 
 
  ...
 
  ...
 +
 +
;security = user
 +
 +
...
  
 
* Replace with the following lines
 
* Replace with the following lines
  
 
  security = user
 
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
+
 
 +
username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  
 
* Append the following lines at the end of file
 
* Append the following lines at the end of file
  
 
  [Group]
 
  [Group]
  comment = Group Folder
+
 
  path = /home/group
+
comment = Group Folder path = /home/group public = yes writable = no valid users = system_username1 system_username2 create mask = 0700 directory mask = 0700 force user = nobody force group = nogroup
  public = yes
+
  writable = no
+
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
+
  create mask = 0700
+
  directory mask = 0700
+
  force user = nobody
+
  force group = nogroup
+
  
 
* Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
 
* Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
第1,291行: 第1,212行:
  
 
  sudo testparm
 
  sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
+
 
 +
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  
 
==== How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes) ====
 
==== How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes) ====
第1,299行: 第1,221行:
  
 
  sudo mkdir /home/public
 
  sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
+
 
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
+
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
+
  
 
* Find this line
 
* Find this line
  
...
 
; security = user
 
 
  ...
 
  ...
 +
 +
;security = user
 +
 +
...
  
 
* Replace with the following lines
 
* Replace with the following lines
  
 
  security = user
 
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
+
 
 +
username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  
 
Then follow either 1. or 2.
 
Then follow either 1. or 2.
第1,319行: 第1,243行:
  
 
  sudo testparm
 
  sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
+
 
 +
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  
 
* 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
 
* 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
第1,329行: 第1,254行:
  
 
  [public]
 
  [public]
  comment = Public Folder
+
 
  path = /home/public
+
comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = yes create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup
  public = yes
+
  writable = yes
+
  create mask = 0777
+
  directory mask = 0777
+
  force user = nobody  
+
  force group = nogroup
+
  
 
* 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
 
* 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
第1,346行: 第1,265行:
  
 
  sudo testparm
 
  sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
+
 
 +
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  
 
<br>
 
<br>
第1,356行: 第1,276行:
  
 
  sudo mkdir /home/public
 
  sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
+
 
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
+
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
+
  
 
* Find this line
 
* Find this line
  
...
 
; security = user
 
 
  ...
 
  ...
 +
 +
;security = user
 +
 +
...
  
 
* Replace with the following line
 
* Replace with the following line
第1,375行: 第1,296行:
  
 
  sudo testparm
 
  sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
+
 
 +
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  
 
* 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
 
* 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
第1,385行: 第1,307行:
  
 
  [public]
 
  [public]
  comment = Public Folder
+
 
  path = /home/public
+
comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = no create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup
  public = yes
+
  writable = no
+
  create mask = 0777
+
  directory mask = 0777
+
  force user = nobody
+
  force group = nogroup
+
  
 
* 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
 
* 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
第1,403行: 第1,319行:
  
 
  sudo testparm
 
  sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
+
 
 +
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  
 
==== How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba ====
 
==== How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba ====
第1,411行: 第1,328行:
  
 
  sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 
  sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
  gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
+
 
 +
gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  
 
:''Find the following lines''
 
:''Find the following lines''
  
 
  ...
 
  ...
  # printing = cups
+
 
  # printcap name = cups
+
# printing = cups
  ...
+
# printcap name = cups
 +
 
 +
...
  
 
:''and uncomment them.''
 
:''and uncomment them.''
  
 
  printing = cups
 
  printing = cups
  printcap name = cups
+
 
 +
printcap name = cups
  
 
:''Restart cups server''
 
:''Restart cups server''
第1,480行: 第1,401行:
  
 
  sudo -u postgres createdb $USER
 
  sudo -u postgres createdb $USER
sudo -u postgres createuser $USER
+
 
 +
sudo -u postgres createuser $USER
  
 
Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:
 
Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:
第1,552行: 第1,474行:
  
 
  // pgVersion.java
 
  // pgVersion.java
+
 
import java.sql.*;
+
import java.sql.*;
+
 
class pgVersion {
+
class pgVersion {
  public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {
+
 
  if(arg.length!=4) {
+
public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {
  System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password");
+
 
  return;
+
if(arg.length!=4) { System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password"); return; } // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver"); Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver(); DriverManager.registerDriver(driver); String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&amp;password="+arg[3]; Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); System.out.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); conn.close(); DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver); }
  }
+
 
  // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
+
}
  Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver();
+
  DriverManager.registerDriver(driver);
+
  String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&amp;password="+arg[3];
+
  Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url);
+
  Statement stat=conn.createStatement();
+
  ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()");
+
  rs.next();
+
  System.out.println(rs.getString("version"));
+
  rs.close();
+
  stat.close();
+
  conn.close();
+
  DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver);
+
  }
+
}
+
  
 
You can run the former code in two ways:
 
You can run the former code in two ways:
第1,582行: 第1,490行:
  
 
  export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:.
 
  export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:.
javac pgVersion.java
+
 
java pgVersion host database user password
+
javac pgVersion.java java pgVersion host database user password
  
 
Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.
 
Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.
第1,590行: 第1,498行:
  
 
  javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java
 
  javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java
java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password
+
 
 +
java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password
  
 
The output is as expected:
 
The output is as expected:
第1,631行: 第1,540行:
  
 
  tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz
 
  tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz
cd ~/exp
+
 
sudo apt-get install libaio1
+
cd ~/exp sudo apt-get install libaio1 sudo ./db2setup
sudo ./db2setup
+
  
 
Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.
 
Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.
第1,642行: 第1,550行:
  
 
  cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5
 
  cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5
./instance/db2ilist
+
 
sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1
+
./instance/db2ilist sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1 sudo install/db2_deinstall -a cd &amp;&amp; sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/ sudo userdel -r dasusr1 sudo userdel -r db2fenc1 sudo userdel -r db2inst1 sudo groupdel dasadm1 sudo groupdel db2fadm1 sudo groupdel db2iadm1
sudo install/db2_deinstall -a
+
cd &amp;&amp; sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/
+
sudo userdel -r dasusr1
+
sudo userdel -r db2fenc1
+
sudo userdel -r db2inst1
+
sudo groupdel dasadm1
+
sudo groupdel db2fadm1
+
sudo groupdel db2iadm1
+
  
 
Before running those commands, please make sure:
 
Before running those commands, please make sure:
第1,720行: 第1,620行:
  
 
  # What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for
 
  # What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for
Port 22
+
 
 +
Port 22
  
 
Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server
 
Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server
第1,771行: 第1,672行:
  
 
  ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho
 
  ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho
vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost
+
 
 +
vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost
  
 
will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.
 
will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.
第1,780行: 第1,682行:
  
 
  sudo aptitude update
 
  sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install sshfs
+
 
 +
sudo aptitude install sshfs
  
 
Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.
 
Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.
第1,791行: 第1,694行:
  
 
  sudo mkdir &lt;mount point&gt;
 
  sudo mkdir &lt;mount point&gt;
sudo chgrp fuse &lt;mount point&gt;
+
 
sudo chmod 775 &lt;mount point&gt;
+
sudo chgrp fuse &lt;mount point&gt; sudo chmod 775 &lt;mount point&gt;
  
 
Mount command
 
Mount command
第1,810行: 第1,713行:
 
(This requires the server version of Gutsy Gibbon, not the standard desktop edition)
 
(This requires the server version of Gutsy Gibbon, not the standard desktop edition)
  
=== How to Install Webmin ===
+
=== How to Install Webmin ===
  
Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More.
+
如何安装Webmin
 +
 
 +
Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More. Webmin是一个基于浏览器管理Apache,PHP,Mysql的工具。
  
 
  wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.370_all.deb
 
  wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.370_all.deb
 
 
  
sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl
+
<br>
 +
<pre>sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl
  
sudo passwd root (Enter new root password, retype)
+
sudo passwd root (将要输入新的管理员密码)
  
sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.370_all.deb
+
sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.370_all.deb </pre>
 +
To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)
  
To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)
+
如果使用Webmin,输入以下的链接到浏览器(确保能使用权https,而不是http)
  
* [https://localhost:10000]
+
https://localhost:10000
  
 
=== Sun Java Application Server (Java EE) ===
 
=== Sun Java Application Server (Java EE) ===
第1,848行: 第1,753行:
  
 
  chmod +x Desktop/filename
 
  chmod +x Desktop/filename
sudo ./Desktop/filename
+
 
 +
sudo ./Desktop/filename
  
 
Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by
 
Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by
  
 
  sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin
 
  sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin
sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant
+
 
 +
sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant
  
 
The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. [http://ant.apache.org/ Ant] is also useful to automate building process.
 
The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. [http://ant.apache.org/ Ant] is also useful to automate building process.
第1,866行: 第1,773行:
  
 
  asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain
 
  asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain
asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain
+
 
asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain
+
asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain
asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain
+
  
 
Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.
 
Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.
  
 
  sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/
 
  sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/
asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain
+
 
asadmin start-domain mydomain
+
asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain asadmin start-domain mydomain asadmin stop-domain mydomain asadmin delete-domain mydomain
asadmin stop-domain mydomain
+
asadmin delete-domain mydomain
+
  
 
If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.
 
If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.
  
 
  asadmin start-domain
 
  asadmin start-domain
asadmin stop-domain
+
 
 +
asadmin stop-domain
  
 
You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:
 
You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:
第1,890行: 第1,795行:
  
 
  asadmin deploy test1.war
 
  asadmin deploy test1.war
asadmin deploy test2.ear
+
 
+
asadmin deploy test2.ear
asadmin undeploy test1.war
+
 
asadmin undeploy test2.ear
+
asadmin undeploy test1.war asadmin undeploy test2.ear
  
 
===== Application Server data Source settings =====
 
===== Application Server data Source settings =====
第1,900行: 第1,805行:
  
 
  sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar
 
  sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar
asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property
+
 
  serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql
+
asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property
asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database
+
 
 +
serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql
 +
 
 +
asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database
  
 
First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:
 
First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:
  
 
  Context ic = new InitialContext();
 
  Context ic = new InitialContext();
DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database");
+
 
Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
+
DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
  
 
To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:
 
To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:
  
 
  asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools
 
  asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools
asadmin list-jdbc-resources
+
 
 +
asadmin list-jdbc-resources
  
 
To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.
 
To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.
  
 
  asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database
 
  asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database
asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql
+
 
 +
asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql
  
 
=== Tomcat 6 ===
 
=== Tomcat 6 ===
第1,939行: 第1,849行:
  
 
  &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?&gt;
 
  &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?&gt;
&lt;tomcat-users&gt;
+
 
  &lt;role rolename="admin"/&gt;
+
&lt;tomcat-users&gt;
  &lt;role rolename="manager"/&gt;
+
 
  &lt;role rolename="tomcat"/&gt;
+
&lt;role rolename="admin"/&gt;
  &lt;user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/&gt;
+
 
  &lt;user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/&gt;
+
&lt;role rolename="manager"/&gt; &lt;role rolename="tomcat"/&gt; &lt;user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/&gt; &lt;user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/&gt; &lt;user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/&gt;
  &lt;user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/&gt;
+
 
&lt;/tomcat-users&gt;
+
&lt;/tomcat-users&gt;
  
 
Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the &lt;tomcat-users&gt; element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web &amp; Java EE pack.
 
Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the &lt;tomcat-users&gt; element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web &amp; Java EE pack.
第1,957行: 第1,867行:
  
 
  echo $CATALINA_HOME
 
  echo $CATALINA_HOME
sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar
+
 
sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest
+
sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes
sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest
+
cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest
+
mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes
+
  
 
Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:
 
Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:
  
 
  &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
 
  &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
+
 
&lt;web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
+
&lt;web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+
 
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd"
+
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  version="2.5"&gt;
+
 
+
xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" version="2.5"&gt;
  &lt;resource-ref&gt;
+
 
  &lt;description&gt;PostgreSQL connectivity&lt;/description&gt;
+
&lt;resource-ref&gt;
  &lt;res-ref-name&gt;jdbc/postgresql&lt;/res-ref-name&gt;
+
 
  &lt;res-type&gt;javax.sql.DataSource&lt;/res-type&gt;
+
&lt;description&gt;PostgreSQL connectivity&lt;/description&gt; &lt;res-ref-name&gt;jdbc/postgresql&lt;/res-ref-name&gt; &lt;res-type&gt;javax.sql.DataSource&lt;/res-type&gt; &lt;res-auth&gt;Container&lt;/res-auth&gt; &lt;/resource-ref&gt;
  &lt;res-auth&gt;Container&lt;/res-auth&gt;
+
 
  &lt;/resource-ref&gt;
+
  &lt;description&gt;
   
+
 
  &lt;description&gt;
+
Page for testing &lt;/description&gt; &lt;display-name&gt;Testing page&lt;/display-name&gt; &lt;servlet&gt; &lt;servlet-name&gt;pgsqlVersion&lt;/servlet-name&gt; &lt;servlet-class&gt;pgsqlVersion&lt;/servlet-class&gt; &lt;/servlet&gt; &lt;servlet-mapping&gt; &lt;servlet-name&gt;pgsqlVersion&lt;/servlet-name&gt; &lt;url-pattern&gt;/pgsqlVersion&lt;/url-pattern&gt; &lt;/servlet-mapping&gt;
  Page for testing
+
 
  &lt;/description&gt;
+
&lt;/web-app&gt;
  &lt;display-name&gt;Testing page&lt;/display-name&gt;
+
  &lt;servlet&gt;
+
  &lt;servlet-name&gt;pgsqlVersion&lt;/servlet-name&gt;
+
  &lt;servlet-class&gt;pgsqlVersion&lt;/servlet-class&gt;
+
  &lt;/servlet&gt;
+
  &lt;servlet-mapping&gt;
+
  &lt;servlet-name&gt;pgsqlVersion&lt;/servlet-name&gt;
+
  &lt;url-pattern&gt;/pgsqlVersion&lt;/url-pattern&gt;
+
  &lt;/servlet-mapping&gt;
+
&lt;/web-app&gt;
+
  
 
Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):
 
Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):
  
 
  &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
 
  &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
&lt;Context&gt;
+
 
  &lt;Resource
+
&lt;Context&gt;
  name="jdbc/postgresql"
+
 
  auth="Container"
+
&lt;Resource
  type="javax.sql.DataSource"
+
 
  driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver"
+
name="jdbc/postgresql" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver" url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database" username="user" password="password" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/&gt; &lt;WatchedResource&gt;WEB-INF/web.xml&lt;/WatchedResource&gt; &lt;WatchedResource&gt;META-INF/context.xml&lt;/WatchedResource&gt;
  url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database"
+
 
  username="user"
+
&lt;/Context&gt;
  password="password"
+
  maxActive="20"
+
  maxIdle="10"
+
  maxWait="-1"/&gt;
+
  &lt;WatchedResource&gt;WEB-INF/web.xml&lt;/WatchedResource&gt;
+
  &lt;WatchedResource&gt;META-INF/context.xml&lt;/WatchedResource&gt;
+
&lt;/Context&gt;
+
  
 
Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:
 
Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:
  
 
  import java.io.*;
 
  import java.io.*;
import java.sql.*;
+
 
import javax.sql.*;
+
import java.sql.*; import javax.sql.*; import javax.naming.*; import javax.servlet.*; public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {
import javax.naming.*;
+
 
import javax.servlet.*;
+
public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {
public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {
+
 
  public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {
+
try { response.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter(); Context initContext = new InitialContext(); Context envContext = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env"); DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection(); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); pw.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); } catch(Exception e) { } }
  try {
+
 
  response.setContentType("text/html");
+
}
  PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter();
+
  Context initContext = new InitialContext();
+
  Context envContext = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env");
+
  DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql");
+
  Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
+
  Statement stat=conn.createStatement();
+
  ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()");
+
  rs.next();
+
  pw.println(rs.getString("version"));
+
  rs.close();
+
  stat.close();
+
  } catch(Exception e) { }
+
  }
+
}
+
  
 
Create index.html and set its content:
 
Create index.html and set its content:
  
 
  &lt;title&gt;PostgreSQL datasource&lt;/title&gt;&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"
 
  &lt;title&gt;PostgreSQL datasource&lt;/title&gt;&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"
  "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd"&gt;
+
 
+
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd"&gt;
 
+
 
 
+
<br>
 
+
 
 
+
<br>
 
+
 
 
+
<br>
 
+
 
 +
<br>
  
 
Then compile the servlet:
 
Then compile the servlet:
  
 
  export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:.
 
  export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:.
javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java
+
 
 +
javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java
  
 
Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!
 
Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!
第2,080行: 第1,958行:
  
 
  sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap  
 
  sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap  
sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
+
 
 +
sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
  
 
Define which folders to share (export):
 
Define which folders to share (export):
第2,113行: 第1,992行:
  
 
  cd ~
 
  cd ~
mkdir temp
+
 
sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp
+
mkdir temp sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp
  
 
''192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address''
 
''192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address''
第2,121行: 第2,000行:
  
 
  sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
 
  sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart
 
  
==== Mounting Automatically ====
+
sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart
 +
 
 +
==== 自动挂载 ====
  
Create mountpoint:
+
首先创建挂载路径:
  
 
  sudo mkdir /mnt/files
 
  sudo mkdir /mnt/files
  
Edit configuration:
+
然后修改配置文件:
  
 
  gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
 
  gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  
Add something similar to below:
+
在配置文件中加上类似于下面的内容:
  
 
  192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0
 
  192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0
  
Test new configuration:
+
保存文件,然后测试一下刚才的修改:
  
 
  sudo mount -a
 
  sudo mount -a
  
Reboot to test automatic mounting.
+
最后,重新启动你的系统,以测试是否成功的自动挂载了。
  
 
== '''''硬件''''' ==
 
== '''''硬件''''' ==
第2,147行: 第2,027行:
 
=== NVidia 驱动 ===
 
=== NVidia 驱动 ===
  
首先,弄清楚你清楚你是什么内核运行以下命令查看:
+
首先,弄清楚您清楚您是什么内核运行以下命令查看:
  
  [email protected]:~$ uname -a
+
  [email protected]:~$ uname -a  
 +
 
  Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux
 
  Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux
  
I have the '''generic''' kernel, so I need to install the following:
+
我安装了'''generic'''的内核,所以我要安装以下的软件包:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic
 
  sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic
  
<br> After that's done, go to '''''System &gt; Administration &gt; Restricted Drivers Manager''''' and turn on the driver.
+
上面的操作做完后,打开'''系统&gt;系统管理&gt;受限驱动管理器''',打开驱动程序。
  
Some users may receive an error screen: "The software source for the packsge nvidia-glx-new is not enabled." This can be overcome by going to '''''System &gt; Administration &gt; Software Sources''''' and ticking all the boxes under the heading "Downloadable from the Internet", click close and then allow Ubuntu to reload the package lists. The NVidia drivers can then be enabled using the method above.
+
有时可能会遇到弹出错误对话框的情况:“包含nvidia-glx-new软件包的软件源并没有启用。”这个问题可以通过勾选'''系统&gt;系统管理&gt;软件源'''中“从Internet上下载”下的复选框,然后点击“关闭”以使ubuntu重新加载软件源而解决。这样Nvidia的驱动就可以通过上面的方法启用。''''''<br>
  
You can optionally prevent showing NVidia logo on startup by:
+
可以通过下面的方法禁用启动时显示的nvidia商标:<br>
  
 
  sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo
 
  sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo
  
=== Wacom tablet ===
+
=== Wacom 平板设备<br> ===
  
By default, options for the Wacom tablet are commented out. Type the following command to edit the '''xorg.conf''' file.
+
默认情况下,Wacom平板的选项是被注释掉的。输入下面的命令修改 '''xorg.conf''' 文件。
  
 
  gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
  gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  
Uncomment the following by removing the "#" or just replace the tree lines:
+
去掉 "#" 以取消注释,或者替换以下三行:
  
  InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents"
+
  InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents"  
  InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents"
+
  InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents"  
 
  InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"
 
  InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"
  
Save and restart your X-session by typing '''CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE'''.
+
保存并重新启动您的X会话,请按 '''CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE'''.
  
=== Microsoft Intellimouse ===
 
  
To get the scroll wheel and side buttons to be recognized, change your '''/etc/X11/xorg.conf''' mouse section to look like the following:
 
  
Section "InputDevice"
+
=== '''微软Intellimouse''' ===
 +
 
 +
为了确保滚轮和侧键能够被正确识别,需要将'''/etc/X11/xorg.conf'''中mouse区段修改成下面这样:<br>
  
  Identifier "Configured Mouse"
+
  Section "InputDevice"
   Driver "mouse"
+
  Identifier "Configured Mouse"  
  Option "CorePointer"
+
   Driver "mouse" Option "CorePointer"  
 
   Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"  
 
   Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"  
   Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
+
   Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"  
   Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
+
   Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"  
   Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
+
   Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"  
 
   Option "Buttons" "7"  
 
   Option "Buttons" "7"  
 
   Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
 
   Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
 +
EndSection
  
EndSection
+
如果你想在firefox中使用滚轮而不是侧键来滚动,设置 "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" 以及 "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".<br>
  
If you want the wheel scroll button to scroll in firefox rather than the side buttons make "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" and "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".
+
现在你可以重启机器或者重启X(Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) 来检查你的前进/后退键在FireFox是不是工作正常。你可以在终端中用'''xev'''来测试。
 
+
At this point you can reboot your computer or restart X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. You can test in a terminal with '''xev'''.
+
  
 
=== Logitech Marble Mouse ===
 
=== Logitech Marble Mouse ===
第2,207行: 第2,087行:
  
 
  Identifier "MarbleMouse"
 
  Identifier "MarbleMouse"
  Driver "mouse"
+
 
  Option "Protocol" "auto"
+
Driver "mouse" Option "Protocol" "auto" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Buttons" "5" Option "ButtonMapping" "1 8 3 6 7" Option "EmulateWheel" "true" Option "EmulateWheelTimeout" "300" # msec Option "EmulateWheelButton" "6" Option "YAxisMapping" "4 5"
  Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
+
  Option "Buttons" "5"
+
  Option "ButtonMapping" "1 8 3 6 7"
+
  Option "EmulateWheel" "true"
+
  Option "EmulateWheelTimeout" "300" # msec
+
  Option "EmulateWheelButton" "6"
+
  Option "YAxisMapping" "4 5"
+
  
 
EndSection
 
EndSection
第2,234行: 第2,107行:
  
 
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
 
  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
+
 
 +
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  
 
Locate and replace the '''InputDevice''' section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier '''Configured Mouse''', and replace it with:
 
Locate and replace the '''InputDevice''' section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier '''Configured Mouse''', and replace it with:
第2,270行: 第2,144行:
  
 
  if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 
  if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
  /usr/bin/numlockx on  
+
 
  fi
+
/usr/bin/numlockx on fi
  
 
* Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on."
 
* Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on."
第2,311行: 第2,185行:
 
=== WINE ===
 
=== WINE ===
  
Latest install instructions are always at: [http://www.winehq.org/site/download-deb WineHQ.org]
+
最新的安装说明在:[http://www.winehq.org/site/download-deb WineHQ.org]<br>
  
Add repository key:
+
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 添加软件仓库密钥:<br>
  
 
  wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
 
  wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  
Add repository to apt sources:
+
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 添加 apt 软件仓库:<br>
  
 
  sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list
 
  sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list
  
Update apt sources:
+
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 更新 apt 软件仓库:<br>
  
 
  sudo apt-get update
 
  sudo apt-get update
  
Install WINE:
+
安装 WINE:<br>
  
 
  sudo apt-get install wine
 
  sudo apt-get install wine
  
The program menu then appears in Programs under Wine, or double-click a Windows/DOS .exe file.
+
&nbsp;所有程序菜单将出现在 Wine 菜单下,或者直接双击一个 Windows/DOS 可执行文件。<br>
  
==== Install Internet Explorer 6 for Wine ====
+
==== 安装Internet Explorer 6 for Wine ====
  
IE 6 is not recommended for general usage, but some Windows packages (installed under Wine) require IE6 to complete installation. Furthermore, IE 6 is useful for checking code for developers who want to see how their web pages appear under IE 6.
+
不推荐使用 IE6 做日常应用,但是一些 Windows 软件包(通过 Wine 安装的)要求 IE6 已经被完整安装。进一步说,IE 6 对于想检验他们自己做的网页在 IE6 上的显示效果的开发者来说有用。<br>
  
Install the required package cabextract from Synaptic Package Manager (or from apt-get install cabextract).
+
安装 IE6 所必须的 cabextract 可以从新利得软件包管理器中获取(或者直接在终端输入 apt-get install cabextract)。<br>
  
Download and run the IEs4Linux installation script from the IEs4Linux website:
+
从IEs4Linux网站下载并运行IEs4Linux安装脚本:&nbsp;
  
 
  wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
 
  wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
  tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
 
  cd ies4linux-*
 
  ./ies4linux
 
  
<br> There is a beta version of the install at http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads
+
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz cd ies4linux-* ./ies4linux
  
'''If you hit advance you have the option to install IE7. I have not gotten it to work as of yet, but IE6 installs with no issues on amd64 and i386'''
+
这里有一个测试版的安装http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads<br>如果您打算安装 IE 7,对于 Amd64 用户来说可能导致无法使用。但是IE6 是不区分 amd64 或i386的。'''<br>'''
  
Accept all the defaults for installation.
+
接受所有的默认安装设置。
  
 
==== Wine-Doors ====
 
==== Wine-Doors ====
  
Wine-Doors http://www.wine-doors.org/ packages Windows applications for Wine. The current package list includes Internet Explorer 6.
+
Wine-Doors 在 [http://www.wine-doors.org/] 打包了可以通过 Wine 运行的 Windows 下的软件。这些软件包的列表其中包括了 Internet Explorer 6。<br>
  
Debian/Ubuntu package (single click) available for [http://www.wine-doors.org/wordpress/?page_id=3 download].
+
Debian/Ubuntu 软件包 (单击安装) 可以在此处[http://www.wine-doors.org/wordpress/?page_id=3 下载]
  
=== VMWare Server ===
+
=== VMWare Server<br> ===
  
Until the Commercial Ubuntu repository includes the VMWare Server, you can use the following 'How To' to compile from source.
+
直到 Ubuntu 商业软件仓库收录了 VMWare Server,您可以根据 'How To' 上讲到的来从源代码编译。<br>
  
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-vmware-server-in-ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon.html Step By Step Vmware server setup guide including Screenshots]
+
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-vmware-server-in-ubuntu-710-gutsy-gibbon.html 一步一步的安装 Vmware server 向导(包含屏幕截图)]
  
==== VMWare Tools ====
+
==== VMWare 工具<br> ====
  
If you want to install VMware tools on ubuntu gutsy follow this steps
+
如果您打算在您的 Ubuntu Gusty 上安装 VMware tools,请遵循以下步骤:<br>
  
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-install-vmware-tools-in-ubuntu.html VMWare Tools Setup Guide Incliding Screenshots]
+
* [http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-install-vmware-tools-in-ubuntu.html VMWare 工具安装向导(包含屏幕截图)]
  
To be able to use usb devices look at following bug comment at https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5
+
若使其正常使用 USB 驱动设备,请仔细阅读下面的 bug 说明:https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5
  
=== How to install Broadcom wireless driver ===
+
=== 如何安装博通(BoardCom)无限上网驱动<br> ===
  
* This worked for me Kubuntu 7.10 32 bit but there are several ways
+
* 这个可以用于我的32位版 Kubuntu 7.10 但是它有很多种方法实现<br>
  
* First, make sure you have the appropriate hardware
+
* 首先,确认您的硬件型号是正确的<br>
  
 
  lspci | grep Broadcom
 
  lspci | grep Broadcom
  
* Output should match this
+
* 其输出应符合如下<br>
  
 
  02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
 
  02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
  
* Then you have to add a repository
+
* 然后,您就可以添加新的软件仓库了<br>
  
 
  gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
 
  gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  
* Add
+
* 在编辑器中加入
  
 
  deb http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
 
  deb http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
  
* Then do this to add the signature
+
* 接下来执行下面内容来增加一个密钥<br>
  
 
  wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
 
  wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  
* Back in the console
+
* 回到终端<br>
  
 
  sudo apt-get update
 
  sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware
 
  
* Just press yes, let it install, and reboot! Thanks to Pete and the 7.04 guide for this.
+
sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware
  
== Requests ==
+
* 此时尽管去按 yes,让他安装,然后重启!感谢 Pete 和 7.04 向导提供。<br>
  
If you have requests that you would like to be part of this guide, write them in [[Ubuntu talk:Gutsy|Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy]].
+
== 要求 ==
  
== '''''Troubleshooting''''' ==
+
如果您对这份指南的一部分有您的要求或改进方案,请在 [[Ubuntu talk:Gutsy|Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy]] 中写下。
  
Place solutions to problems you have encountered with Gutsy here. They may be workarounds to bugs or other solutions to other problems.
+
== '''''问题解决''''' ==
  
=== OpenOffice spell checking problem ===
+
将您在使用 Gusty 时遭遇的问题贴在这里 。他们将想办法解决它,或者可以将它用于解决其他的类似毛病。<br>
  
This problem is not a bug at all. Some Languages do not have spell checking support, while others do. For example, "English (India)" does not support spell checking but "English (USA)" does. Just go to
+
=== OpenOffice 拼写检查问题<br> ===
  
Tools -&gt; Options -&gt; Language Settings -&gt; Languages
+
这个问题不是一个漏洞。一部分语言没有内置拼写检查的支持。像其他人一样,举个例子,"英文 (印度)" 就不支持拼写检查,但是"英文 (美国)" 却支持。直接找到:<br>
  
and select a Western language that has a check mark beside the language name. That's it.
+
工具 -&gt; 选项 -&gt; 语言设置 -&gt; 语言
  
If you want to add languages that support spell checking, install the package myspell-&lt;language&gt; where &lt;language&gt; is the desired language, e.g.:
+
然后选择一个名称前面带有对钩的西方语种,就是这样。<br>
 +
 
 +
如果您想添加某种语言的拼写检查功能, 安装名为 myspell-&lt;语言&gt; 的软件包,其中 &lt;语言&gt; 替换为您打算安装的语言缩写,例如:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install myspell-fr  
 
  sudo apt-get install myspell-fr  
  
to install the French dictionary.
+
这样就可以安装法语词典了。
  
 
=== Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout ===
 
=== Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout ===
第2,519行: 第2,391行:
 
* For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.
 
* For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.
  
== Tips And Tricks ==
+
== 问题&amp;提示<br> ==
  
It is pointless to add the tricks that is already added in [[Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips And Tricks|Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Tricks]]. So, only new tricks are added.
+
在这里加入[[Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips And Tricks|Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Trick]]中已列出的问题是无意义的,所以,请您只添加新的问题进来。<br>
  
=== What to do when Ubuntu freezes ===
+
=== &nbsp;Ubuntu"死机“时怎么办<br> ===
  
There are different reasons for a computer to crash - there can be a programming bug, a memory issue, or other. When your computer seems to be dead, don't panic! And don't reach for that power button! There are '''five''' simple things you can try before killing the power:
+
有无数种原因可能导致系统崩溃,可能是程序的bug,可能是内存管理的问题,或者其它任何原因。当你的计算机停止响应时,不要总想着去按“电源”键关机!在你强行关掉电源前试试以下几种简单的方法:<br>
  
# Is the computer frozen? Try going into one of the VTs by pressing '''&lt;Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;''' and '''F1'''. This way you may still have control of the computer and manage to kill the application which caused the problem. '''''More on killing applications later.'''''
+
<br>
# If you can't change into a VT, try to kill the X session. This can be done by pressing '''&lt;Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;&lt;Backspace&gt;'''. All applications that were opened during the session will automatically be killed, so you should gain control over the computer after you've been sent back to the login screen.
+
# OK, so you can't kill X or go into VT. Let's do a reboot, which can safely be done by pressing '''&lt;Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;&lt;Delete&gt;'''. The machine will beep and start running the shutdown scripts.
+
# If for some reason one or more of the shutdown scripts should die, and the computer stops the rebooting process, press the key combination again to ''force a reboot''. This not safe if the scripts haven't gotten around to unmount the local filesystems.
+
# Final way out: Your computer doesn't obey and none of above methods seem to give any response. Here's a little trick that might help, not known to many Linux users! The kernel has a small userspace communication line opened, so even if the computer has crashed badly (I haven't tried this during kernel-panic, though, can anyone confirm?) you can make it reboot safely. This method ''is'' safe, but should be used '''''only if everything else fails'''''! Hold down '''&lt;Ctrl&gt;''', '''&lt;Alt&gt;''' and '''&lt;PrtScrn/SysRq&gt;'''. While holding down these, type the following letters - in order - '''R E I S U B'''. The computer will unmount any filesystems that are locally mounted, and safely bring down the system. If you have trouble remembering the letter combination; think '''''busier''''', only ''backwards''.
+
  
=== How to find the UUID of a device ===
+
# 计算机停止响应了吗?先试着按'''&lt;Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;'''和'''&lt;F1>'''键来进入虚拟终端。这样计算机仍在你掌控中,你可以停掉导致系统无响应的程序。<br>
 +
# 如果你不能进入虚拟终端,再试试重启图形界面吧,方法是'''&lt;Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;&lt;backspace&gt;'''。所有在这个图形界面中打开的应用程序都将被关闭,登录界面出现,你可以重获系统控制权。
 +
# 如果前面两个都失败了,我们重启吧。最安全的做法就是按&lt;'''Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;&lt;Delete&gt;'''。电脑将运行关机脚本,安全重启。<br>
 +
# 如果由于关机脚本的问题导致方法3失败,那么就重新按下3中所说那三个键。当然这样是不安全的,因为系统可能不会unmount掉文件系统。
 +
# 必杀技:如果试了以上方法都无效,有一条小秘决,别人我不告诉他。其实系统核心有一条小小的用户空间通信管道保持畅通,在你的核心崩溃时(这个方法我还没试过,谁去试试?)你可以通过以下方法安全重启。这个方法是安全的,但切记'''只有所有尝试失败後再这样做'''!按下'''&lt;Ctrl&gt;&lt;Alt&gt;'''和'''&lt;PrtScrn/SysRq&gt;'''键,别放开,然後输入以下字母(确保按顺序)'''REISUB'''。系统会unmount掉mount的所有本地文件系统,安全关机。什么?这个字母序列很难忘?把它倒过来读读“busier"。<br>
  
* This is useful if changes are made to the partition table or a new hard drive is added to the computer.
+
=== 如何找到一个驱动器的UUID代号 ===
* When the UUID(s) change an error will be caused during boot.
+
* Pressing &lt;Ctrl&gt;-D will allow the boot to continue but to fix the problem:
+
  
-&gt; Open fstab file:
+
* 初于什么原因,如果你打算修改分区表或者在计算机上增加一个硬盘驱动器,这将对你非常有用。<br>
 +
* 当他们(驱动器)的 UUID 改变时,在启动中将遇到错误。<br>
 +
* 使用&lt;Ctrl&gt;-D 将允许勉强继续启动,但是想要修复这个问题,你需要:<br>
 +
 
 +
-&gt; 打开 fstab 文件:<br>
  
 
  sudo gedit /etc/fstab
 
  sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  
-&gt; In another terminal run this commmand:
+
-&gt; 在另一个终端中运行如下命令:
  
 
  ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/  
 
  ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/  
  
-&gt; Or you can type this to list all of your devices:
+
-&gt; 或者,也可以输入下面这个命令来列出驱动器:
  
 
  blkid
 
  blkid
  
* Compare the UUID's and any that are different in fstab from the list must be changed. The easiest way is copy and paste.
+
* fstab 中,带有 UUID 的部分或其它相关不相符的地方都要依次更正。最简单的方法,你可以复制、粘贴它们。&lt;译者注:如果根目录没有修改,直接用的 /dev+下面的设备名称来代替 UUID&gt;<br>
* Some other things may have to be edited as well like the mount point, type (ext2, ext3, ntfs, etc) , options, dump, pass, etc.
+
* 有的其它的地方也应该相应的修改,好比说装载点、文件系统格式(ext2, ext3, ntfs...等等) , 选项, dump,跳过...等等。<br>
  
''For more help editing fstab look [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=283131 Here:]''
+
''更多关于如何修改编辑 fstab 的文章[http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=283131 点击此处:]''
  
* To list the UUID of a specific device:
+
* 如果要列出指定设备的 UUID,输入:<br>
  
 
  sudo vol_id -u device
 
  sudo vol_id -u device
  
* Where device might be /dev/sdxy.
+
* 其中 device 可能是 /dev/sdxy.
  
''Example: sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1''
+
''例:sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1''
  
 
=== Enable vim syntax highlighting ===
 
=== Enable vim syntax highlighting ===
第2,589行: 第2,463行:
  
 
  sudo nautilus
 
  sudo nautilus
+
 
+
<br>
  
 
Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder '''rc2.d''' rename '''s12hal''' to '''s13hal'''
 
Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder '''rc2.d''' rename '''s12hal''' to '''s13hal'''
第2,610行: 第2,484行:
  
 
  sudo apt-get install localepurge
 
  sudo apt-get install localepurge
sudo localepurge
 
  
=== Auto starting pidgin at login ===
+
sudo localepurge
 +
 
 +
=== 登录後自动运行 pidgin ===
  
Goto System -&gt; Preferences -&gt; Sessions. Click Add. A popup window will appear. Set Name to "Pidgin" and Command to "/usr/bin/pidgin". Click OK. Make sure that it is enabled.
+
打开“系统 -&gt; 首选项 -&gt; 会话”。单击“添加”按钮。在弹出的对话框中填写名称“Pidgin”,命令“/usr/bin/pidgin”。单击“确定”,然後保证添加的这一行被勾选上即可。
  
 
=== sudo/gksu without password ===
 
=== sudo/gksu without password ===

2015年8月27日 (四) 10:21的最新版本

目录

Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)

Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon, Feisty Fawn 的后续版本,于 2007 年 10 月 18 日已经发布。请帮忙测试和完善这份指南

这份指南由 Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). 发起。现在它由Latvia 大学Linux 中心和所有愿意贡献的其他人们共同维护。

这份手册可以在官方论坛 ubuntuforums.org 的UbuntuGuide.org 论坛 讨论。加入讨论吧。

前言

关于 Gutsy

  • 2007 年 10 月 18 日,Ubuntu 7.10 发布。
  • 它被命名为 Gutsy Gibbon,它是 Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn 的后续版本(Feisty +1 或紧接 Feisty 之后发布的版本)
  • Gutsy 将在桌面和服务器版本上提供 18 个月的支持
  • 要求更长期服务器版本支持的用户可以选择 Ubuntu 6.06 LTS ,而不是更新到 7.10, 因为 6.06 的安全支持直到 2011 年。

如何知道您正在使用的 Ubuntu 的版本

  • 阅读[[|#General Notes]]
  • 在 Gutsy 中转到 系统 -> 系统管理 -> 系统监视器 -> 系统 选项卡

或者在所有的 Ubuntu 版本及派生版中都可以使用这个命令:

lsb_release -a

Ubuntu 的更新的版本

  • Ubuntu 采用 6 个月的发行周期
  • 一般发布在 4 月和 10 月
  • 下一次的发布计划在 2008 年 4 月 24 日,并命名为 Ubuntu 8.04(Hardy Heron)即 Gutsy+1。
  • Hardy Heron 将是 LTS(长期支持)版本,将提供 5 年的服务器版本安全支持和 3 年的桌面版本支持。

Ubuntu 的老版本

如果您使用一个 Ubuntu 的过时的版本,您应该考虑将其升级到 Gutsy。 这个版本有相当多的改进,并且和将来的版本更加容易整合。如果您使用其作为一个生产环境,或您认为所有的事情都很完美,您可以考虑仍然使用长期支持版本(LTS)。

  • Dapper 是最新的 LTS 版本,Gutsy+1 的新版本将是下一个 LTS 版本。

一般说明

  1. 这是一个非官方的 Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) 初学者向导. 它与 Ubuntu和 Canonical 公司都没有关系.
  2. 这个向导发自于官方论坛(UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org).欢迎参与讨论。 
  3. 如果您看到蓝色方框,这意味着您需要在终端模式中执行这些命令(应用程序 -〉附件 -〉终端)或者按照相应说明执行方框中的内容。
  4. 在终端模式,您也可以用“复制”“粘贴”来代替用键盘键入命令,这样往往可以有效的防止输入错误。(Ctrl+c=复制,Shift+Insert=粘贴)
  5. "sudo" 表示 "substitute user do. sudo 需要您提供密码(密码不会在终端中回显). 您可以利用sudo代替另一个用户在计算机上操作-比如  sudo -u peter <命令> 将会以peter的身份在计算机上执行此命令。
  6. 欲获得更多关于命令的信息,请参阅手册页。例如,在终端中输入“man sudo”可以获得与sudo相关的信息。
  7. 您也可以使用更新管理器来代替"apt-get"(系统-系统管理-更新管理器)
  8. "apt-get"和"wget"都需要网络连接来下载安装和更新程序
  9. 所以涉及 "aptitude"的选项都可以用"apt-get"替代.当然可以继续使用"aptitude",但是这可能会造成一些依赖性上的问题。
  10. 可以点击右键选择“链接另存为”来下载文件,但必须保证文件的名字和拓展名都是正确的
  11. 如果您有意向帮助Ubuntu本土化,请访问 https://launchpad.net/
  12. 善待他人的理念永远和Ubuntu一起伴随着您...
  13. 如果使用的是64位的版本,请在“i386”用“amd64”代替

外部链接申明

这份指南中的很多部分都有外部链接,这可以使这份指南更加精悍,然而Ubuntugide.org不能保证每个链接都是有效的。我们不能对本指南以外的一些拓展链接负责,如果您发现哪个链接是无效的,那请在此处报告问题,或者为我们修正那些指向错误的外部链接。因为有您,我们才能做的更加完美。

关于链接出错

如果您发现某个链接是错误的或者无法找到相关信息,那请将此连接贴到此处,包括您是在哪段里找到此链接的。谢谢合作!

Directory does not exist! Please specify existing directory at Preferences tab!

关于Ubuntu以及官方的一些相关内容

Ubuntu 7.10的相关指导


Ubuntu截图

Ubuntu 7.10 截图展示 

Kubuntu 7.10 导航和链接

Kubuntu 截图

Kubuntu 7.10 屏幕截图相册

Xubuntu 7.10 导航和链接

Xubuntu 截图

Xubuntu 7.10 屏幕截图相册

Edubuntu 7.10 导航和链接

Edubuntu 官方网站
维基百科:Edubuntu

Gobuntu 7.10 导航和链接

维基百科:Gobuntu

翻译和本地化

Ubuntu对中文,日文,葡萄牙文及其它的欧洲语言的支持比对其它语言的支持要好。如果您的语言没有足够的支持的话,那么您可以帮助Ubuntu翻译成您喜欢的语言。翻译请访问 translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu 并登录(如果没有注册的话请先注册)。选择您喜欢的语言并开始翻译。

更新升级和安装软件

如何添加新的软件仓库

Work in Progress

通过菜单

  • 选择更加友好的软件仓库。这是Ubuntu发行系统的一部分。推荐使用这种方法。
系统-->系统管理-->软件源

在您认为您将要用到的软件仓库(main, universe, restricted, multiverse)的前面选中。您可能不需要源码软件仓库。

  • 增加第三方软件仓库。这些软件仓库不会被监视,然而,有些十分流行。使用第三方软件仓库会增加您的风险。
系统-->系统管理-->软件源-->第三方软件-->添加

为您的软件仓库命名。在这个例子中,我们将要用Medibuntu,一个十分流行但是没有被Ubuntu接纳的软件仓库。

APT行:deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • 下载任何需要的 gpg 钥匙并将它们添加到钥匙列表。钥匙是用来验证软件仓库和系统的配套性。我们用Medibuntu 的软件仓库(非 Ubuntu 附属)的例子来说明:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

手动方法

  • 备份您现有的软件源列表
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • 用一个文本编辑器打开软件源列表

Ubuntu 的用户:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • 用下面的行复盖所有内容
如果您希望使用当地的软件仓库境象站点,请在 archive.ubuntu.com前面加上“cc.” (cc = 您的国家缩写)
例如 deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

  1. 包括了发行版发布後的後续漏洞修复更新

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted 

  1. 社区维护的开源软件 (Universe)

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe

  1. 被版权与合法性问题限制的软件 (Multiverse)

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse

  1. 移植应用程序 (Backports)

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

  1. Canonical 合作伙伴软件仓库

deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse

  1. PLF 软件仓库 (不被支持的. 可能包括非法软件包. 使用它具有一定风险.)

deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free

  • 保存编辑好的文件
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

sudo apt-get update

怎样从Feisty 升级到 Gutsy

如何编辑自动更新

  • 从菜单打开自动更新:
系统-->管理-->软件源-->更新

选定重要安全更新和建议安全更新以及其他需要的更新。选取定期更新。

如何手动升级 Ubuntu

  • 查阅[[|#General Notes]]
  • 查阅[[|#How to add extra repositories]]
  • 通过命令行:

使用http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ 网页来生成/etc/apt/sources.list 文件

备份现有的/etc/apt/sources.list文件
根椐浏览器中生成的页面内容,创建新的/etc/apt/sources.list 文件
然後运行下面的命令

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get upgrade sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

  • 通过主菜单:
System -> Administration -> Update Manager
系统 ->系统管理 ->更新管理器

添加应用程序

Miscellaneous Applications

The application in this section need a home. If Editors have the time, please place these apps in an appropriate category. If the category doesn't exist then make it. Destroy this message when complete. Thanks. --KrazyPenguin 06:16, 27 October 2007 (EEST)

Hotwire - Ubuntu的图形化终端

如果您想要一个Ubuntu的图形化终端,这个将非常有用

如何在ubuntu下安装 Epiphany浏览器

如果您希望知道如何在 ubuntu 下安装 Epiphany 浏览器请留意下面的内容

Midori - Ubuntu下的一个轻量级网页浏览器

如果您想知道如何在ubuntu中安装Midori网页浏览器请留意下面的内容

apturl - Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon 的操作方法扩展

如果您想要使用浏览器安装Ubuntu软件包的话,这里有一个简单的工具

sysvconfig - init脚本配置实用工具

sysvconfig - 在Ubuntu下,配置 init脚本、链接、服务的命令行的工具。

如何在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent

如果您想在Ubuntu Gutsy中安装qBittorrent下面的东西对您有用

aMSN使用

一键挂载/卸载ISO镜像

启动管理器

启动管理器 -用于更改GRUB、GRUB2和Usplash的设置

Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386

首先

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

然後

wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update

接着我们安装上阅读器及其插件

sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript

同样,您可以安装上Firefox的插件

sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread

享用Adobe Reader

OpenOffice 插件

用Ubuntu下的OpenOffice打开.docx文件(其它的发行版本可能也可行)

首先我们需要下载转换工具,它可以从这里下载> [1] 下载"odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm"

如果您还没有安装alien的话,现在把它装上

sudo apt-get install alien

接着转换它的包格式,我们不想让它转换为.deb包,所以我们使用-ct的命令参数,而不是-k,命令参数-ct将其转换为.tgz包

sudo alien -ct odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm

转换好後您需要将包解压缩

tar xvf odf-converter-1.0.0.tgz

现在在您的桌面上或者任何您将其解压缩的地方都会有3个文件夹

运行

sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/program/OdfConverter /usr/lib/openoffice/program/
sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter/MOOXFilter_cpp.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter
sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types/MOOXTypeDetection.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types

Then you are done, you can now open and edit .docx files ONLY I will post the others when I find them.

在Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy)上安装"odf converter"还有另一种方法,只需如下简单的3步:

(首先确保您拥有root权限,在终端下,输入sudo su -并在提示後输入您的密码)

第一步: echo "deb http://ubuntu.org.ua/ getdeb/" >>/etc/apt/sources.list

第二步: apt-get update

第三步: apt-get install odf-converter

我试了以上3步并让它成功在我机器上运行了起来,大家可以试试,以便让我知道是否会有人用出问题来。

 

族谱研究与分析管理软件 (Gramps)

GRAMPS(Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System), 是一个在GTK/GNOME界面下,由Python语言编写的开源族谱学程序。GRAMPS 可以导入诸如在Windows下由FamilyTree Maker生成的GEDCOM文件,并且可以生成多种格式的报告,例如流行的ABIword和OpenOffice.org格式,以及HTML和PDF格式。

sudo apt-get install gramps

桌面

怎样使用Tweak优化您的Ubuntu?

详细的Tweak使用说明请点击如下页面:

怎样优化Ubuntu系统

AMOR - a creature for your desktop

If you want to add some fun to your ubuntu desktop this is for you


高级桌面特效 (Compiz Fusion)

Compiz Fusion 是 Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 默认安装的,也就是说通常用户是不需要修改关键的配置文件的。但是在很多地方,Compiz 需要私有驱动以确保您的显卡可以正常工作,因此,您必须确认您是否安装了它要求的驱动。

要开启桌面特效,打开 系统 > 首选项 > 外观视觉效果 选项卡下您将看到三个选项: 正常附加。如果要开启 Compiz,请在后两项中选择一个。

如果您希望定制您的 Compiz 选项和插件,譬如动画效果或桌面立方体,您需要先去安装一个配置工具:

sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager 

然后打开外观对话框,在视觉效果选项卡下选择 自定义gtk 首选项, 或者通过选择菜单的 系统 > 首选项 > Advanced Desktop Effects Settings来打开配置界面。您也可以在终端或运行对话框(ALT + F2)中输入 ccsm来打开它。

ATI 用户与 Compiz

一部分 ATI 显卡不需要私有的驱动就可以开启 Compiz,就好比说开源的(radeon)也是支持3D加速的。尽管如此,开源驱动仍做不到像闭源的(fglrx) 那么快。好吧,如果您需要一个私有驱动,您就需要安装后在终端做一点小的修正。


1. 首先,无论您是从其他网站还是在ATI官方网站下载的,当您安装完驱动后,您必须设置 Xorg 的配置文件来使您的新驱动生效。一定不要忘记在修改之前备份好当前的文件,如果那一步做错了,可以随时打开终端并输入:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf

此项操作将禁用默认的 radeon 驱动并开启 ATI 的驱动。


2. 现在,我们来告诉 Compiz 不要管那些列在黑名单中的驱动:

echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" >> $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager

当然,您也可以将它加入白名单。这将是更加完美的解决方案。运行这个命令来编辑Compiz的启动脚本:

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz

搜索 Driver whitelist 然后在行的结尾处增加 fglrx,像这样:

# Driver whitelist
WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"


3. 重启您的计算机,登录然后开启Compiz 作为上面提到的 et voilà! 看一看 Compiz 拥抱 ATI 吧!

系统实时监视

sudo apt-get install netspeed
 

在顶部面板的空白区域右击并选择“添加到面板..."。添加”系统监视器“和”网络监视器“。在系统监视器上右击并选择”选项“。添加您想监视的监视资源。

桌面会话录制

用来记录整个桌面会话,包括鼠标指针和系统音效。这对于视频截屏是很有用的工具,因为按Print Screen键所生成的常规静态图像往往不能表明所有的东西。有三个程序可以为您做到这些,他们是Istanbul,Wink和gtk-recordMyDesktop。

Istanbul
sudo apt-get install istanbul
Wink
sudo apt-get install wink
gtk-recordMyDesktop
sudo apt-get install gtk-recordmydesktop

International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution)

To switch to the new international clock applet download it from Here then install it with dpkg.

Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:

>Add to panel...>Miscellaneous>International Clock>Add

You got it.

Add World Map and choose World locations using its Preferences menu

备份

如果你想使用Sbackup备份Ubuntu Desktop。

如果你想使用rdiff-backup备份ubuntu

游戏

冰冻泡泡

要安装冰冻泡泡游戏,运行:

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble

或者使用 系统 > 管理工具 下的新利得软件包管理器,找到它并安装。

如何解数独

这里有一个简单的 Perl script 来帮助您解数独。它不支持 trial-and-error.

  超级任天堂模拟器 (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64

  • 阅读[[|#General Notes]]

需要支持或提问,请查阅 http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744

ZSNES 1.51 已经被Gutsy官方 i386 软件仓库收录。尽管这样,它还没有官方的 AMD64 版本。i386 version is known to have issues in Gutsy (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=571666). There is a workaround available for i386 users who are experiencing this error (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=3604026&postcount=22).

  • 加入第三方软件仓库
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • 使用下面命令行中的其中一行完成安装
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #专供 amd64 用户

sudo apt-get install zsnes #供所有其他用户

  • 应用程序 > 游戏 > zsnes 或 zsnes32

索尼PS模拟器 (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64

  • 阅读 [[|#General Notes]]

需要支持或提问,请查看 http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097

  • 加入第三方软件仓库
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • 使用下面的其中一个命令行完成安装
sudo apt-get install psx32 #专供 amd64 用户

sudo apt-get install psx #供其他所有用户

  • 应用程序 > 游戏 > pSX 或 pSX32

KDE 游戏

安装 KDE3 中的自带游戏 (Kubuntu 用户无须安装)。安装 kdegames 软件包。这可以通过输入下面的命令完成:

sudo apt-get install kdegames

UrbanTerror 4.0

  • UrbanTerror 4.0 is a Multi-player First Person Shooter. The Game uses the open source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free to use servers for multi-player functionality.

More information can be found at UrbanTerror

  • After downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the script executable with the following command:
sudo chmod +x urt40-linux-installer.sh
  • Now double click on the script to execute and follow the directions
  • The install will take awhile as the script executes a download of the necessary files which are about 541MB
  • After the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root)

This easy install script is courtesy of Nexu from the UrbanTerror Forums.

CD/DVD

怎样提取DVD视频

dvd::rip 是用Perl编写的全功能DVD复制程序。它提供了一个简单易用而又功能丰富的图形用户界面,以此来控制视频提取和编码转换的几乎所有方面。他使用知名的视频处理程序swissknife编码转换和其他许多开源工具。

sudo apt-get install dvdrip

怎样刻录DVD视频

dvdauthor 是一个可以从有效的mpeg2视频流生成可以在DVD播放器里播放的DVD影片的程序。

sudo apt-get install dvdauthor

怎样刻录CD/DVD

nautilus-cd-burner是一款初级的,预安装的用来刻写CD或者DVD的程序。Serpentine是一款预安装的音频CD创建程序。Serpentine在制作音频CD时,可以实时转换flac和mp3格式。 nerolinux 是一款非免费的CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD刻录软件。k3b是一款出色的KDE下的CD/DVD刻写工具(是 Kubuntu 用户的理想选择). 不过如果您要在 GTK/Gnome平台下寻找替代品,那么或许您会喜欢 brasero, cdw/gcdw, gcdmaster, graveman and gnomebaker

dvdisaster为由于刮伤和老化所造成的CD和DVD数据丢失提供了保全的余地。如果光碟是在最近损坏的,它可以生成修复数据用来恢复无法读取的区段。

互联网

浏览器插件

Ubuntu 会在Firefox中自动安装浏览站点所需的插件。不过如果您想安装插件,可以在终端里执行以下命令:

安装 Java 插件:

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin

安装 Flash 插件:

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

或者您想支持开源flash插件:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash

安装 VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc

安装 MPlayer 插件 (同时自动安装 MPlayer ):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer

安装 Real player 插件 (同时自动安装 helix-player):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player

安装 kaffeine 安装 (同时自动安装 kaffeine ):

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla

安装 image-zoom 插件 (用于在页面内缩放图像):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom

安装 adblock 插件 (用于屏蔽网页中的广告):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock

Gutsy包含从 Ubuntu 源中向Firefox添加扩展的选项。添加扩展的选项是默认包含的。如需查看和添加 Ubuntu Add-ons:

  • 在Firefox中,进入Tools> Add-ons
  • 点击"Get Ubuntu Addons"
  • 查看所有可用的add-ons,点击 "Show:" 下方的列表并选择 "All Available Applications"
  • 选择任意您需要的add-ons,并点击 "Apply Changes"
  • 您可以从通常的Firefox add-on 列表中查看您已经安装了哪个add-ons。

(提示: 所有的 Ubuntu add-ons 同样都可以通过新立得包管理器中获得。)

Shockwave

'Shockwave'没有相应的 Ubuntu/Linux 版本,但是可以用WINE来运行 这个方法将使得计算机中安装2个Firefox浏览器 仅当网站需要时才使用WINE的版本 原始版本的Firefox能提供更好的计算机性能, 所以在其他情况下都应该是用它

  • 安装 WINE
  • 下载并安装Windows版Firefox
  • 下载并安装Windows版Shockwave

下载管理器 (X中的下载器)

要安装X中的下载器,只需简单执行:

sudo apt-get install d4x

或者使用系统 > 管理菜单中的新立得包管理器来寻找和安装 "d4x" 包。

FTP 客户端 (FileZilla)

FileZilla 是一个从windows环境下移植的功能强大的FTP客户端。它发布到第三个版本并成为跨平台的软件,可以通过 Ubuntu Gutsy源获得。

要安装 FileZilla FTP客户端,只需简单执行:

sudo apt-get install filezilla

或者使用系统 > 管理菜单中新立得包管理器来寻找和安装 "filezilla" 包。

为Gmail配置Evolution

访问http://mail.google.com/mail/ 点击设置 (由商家). 选择转发和 POP/IMAP.

  • 如果你想使用POP协议,选择"针对所有邮件启用 POP(包括已经下载的邮件)"或"对从现在起所收到的邮件启用 POP"中的一个。
  • 如果你想使用IMAP协议,选择"启用 IMAP"。

保存更改.

从程序 -> Internet -> Evolution Mail 打开Evolution。如果以前没有建立过邮件帐户,系统将自动打开邮件帐户建立向导。从Edit(编辑) -> preferences(选项) -> Mail Accounts(邮件帐户) -> Add(添加) 打开简历邮件帐户向导。点击 Forward(下一步)。输入你的Gmail地址 (包括 @gmail.com)。点击 Forward(下一步)。

  • 如果你想通过POP访问Gmail,设置"Server Type(服务类型)" 为 POP, "Server(服务器地址)" 为 pop.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" 为 "SSL encryption(SSL加密)".
  • 如果你想通过IMAP访问Gmail,设置"Server Type(服务类型)" 为 IMAP, "Server(服务器地址)" 为 imap.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" 为 "SSL encryption(SSL加密)".

点击 Forward(下一步)。点击 Forward(下一步)。设置"Server(smtp服务器地址)" 为 smtp.gmail.com, 设置 "Use Secure Connection(使用安全连接方式)" 为 "SSL encryption(SSL加密)"。点击 Forward(下一步)。点击 Forward(下一步)。点击应用。

注意:GMAIL 对 IMAP的支持开始大量的普及(Oct. 2007) 但是并不是所有的用户的账号都已经支持,所以建议使用POP协议知道所有的用户账号到支持IMAP协议. 译者语:通过浏览GMAIL帮助中心并没有发现IMAP的支持还没有应用到所有用户,并尝试开通了IMAP服务发现服务正常。(May. 2008)

SwiftFox

Swiftfox is the Firefox web browser, but built with optimizations to increase speed on specific CPU types. It is compatible with all Firefox extensions and themes, and uses the same settings location as Firefox, so you can use both transparently.

Instructions from getswiftfox.com

  • Add the Swiftfox repository
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add this line at the bottom
deb http://getswiftfox.com/builds/debian unstable non-free
  • Update apt sources
sudo apt-get update
  • Check your CPU compatibility here
  • Install your version of Swiftfox
sudo apt-get install swiftfox-pentium4
  • Run with
Programs > Internet > Swiftfox
  • There is also an [installer] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.

Azureus (Java BitTorrent 客户端) 

安装Azureus的简单方法是: sudo apt-get install azureus 但是它有相当多的依赖关系。 这里讨论了一个替代的方法。另外,您创建一个文件 /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop 在其中添加下列命令行使得它出现在主菜单中。


[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8 Type=Application Terminal=false Name=Azureus Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus Comment=Java BitTorrent client Categories=Application;Network; MimeType=application/x-bittorrent; Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png


(这里假设 azureus 安装在 /usr/local directory)

更新:一个全新的Azureus包现已可以从gutsy-backports获得,相比main源中的版本好的多。它修复了许多稳定性问题并且使用icedtea/Java 7编译。当您阅读此内容时,它可能已经可以从main源中获得了。因而,您应该在通过apt-get安装azureus之前确认使用了gutsy-backports源。

Deluge ( 一个用python编写的轻量级的BitTorrent客户端)

如果您需要一个比Azureus占用更少内存和CPU时间的客户端,那么您可以尝试Deluge。然而由于从Ubuntu 源获取的版本存在稳定性问题,那么比较好的选择是使用Deluge官方网站 上现成的Gutsy专用包来安装最新的版本。安装只需点击和您的版本和系统架构(“i386”对应32位系统而“x86_64"对应64位系统)对应的Debian包并选择使用GDebi package installer来安装它。

DC++ client (Linuxdcpp)

  • Install:
sudo apt-get install linuxdcpp
  • Then go
Main Menu->Intenet->DC++

多媒体播放器

怎样安装 Mplayer 和 Multimedia Codecs(解码器)

   安装 mplayer 和 codecs的简单向导

  • 这里 下载 SMPlayer (MPlayer的一个很棒的前端) 然後双击安装它。 smplayer这个前端也可以在软件包管理器中安装。
  关于64位版本 Mplayer 对 wmv9 格式支持问题

    AMD64版本的Mplayer不能正确的播放wmv9格式的文件。 要播放wmv9,您需要安装32位版本的mplayer, 和所有需要的解码器.。相较于我新安装的Gutsy,我不需要额外安装它所依赖的库文件,这让配置mplayer的工作简单多了。这就是说,做完这些步骤後您就可以随时观赏wmv9的文件了。

下载  mplayer32 for Edgy 的版本 (被证明能稳定地工作) 放到临时的文件夹中。

mkdir mplayer32temp

cd mplayer32temp wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb

解开您刚才下载的这个压缩包,放到合适的地方 (按 'n'当 问您是否要为文件更换位置)

sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./

sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/ sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/

从mplayerrhq 获取最新的 win32 codecs (下面命令中是10月7日版本, 2007), 解压缩然後安装 (同样, 在问到更换位置时按'n' )

wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2

tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2 sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/

播放 wmv9 影片.(享受它)

mplayer32 foobar.wmv


怎样安装 amaroK 多媒体播放器

  • 注意: KDE 环境下, Amarok 已经默认安装 。
sudo apt-get install amarok
  • 从菜单启动:
Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK
怎样卸载 amaroK
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove amarok

怎样获得MP3文件播放时的鼠标滑过预览

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras 
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio 
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat 
sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins

这个方法可能会破坏Skype软件的声音系统

您也能通过下面的步骤实现鼠标滑过预览:

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd 
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools 
sudo apt-get install esound 
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

这样系统中的Skype会保持正常功能

怎样安装VLC媒体播放器

sudo apt-get install vlc

卸载VLC媒体播放器:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove vlc

怎样安装 Banshee 音乐管理和播放器

sudo apt-get install banshee

卸载:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee

怎样编码/解码音频

sox是一个很棒的命令行工具,它不但是一个普通的编码/解码器而且还是一个很好的合成器。阅读它的手册以获得更多的信息。

Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output

sudo apt-get install sox


sox不能处理Real Audio格式,您需要mplayer来把.rm文件转换成.wav文件,然后使用sox把波形文件转换成其它格式的文件。 

mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm

怎样编码/解码视频

mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora, 等使一些视频转换工具。 阅读他们的手册获取信息

sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora

怎样编辑音频

sudo apt-get install lmms
sudo apt-get install audacity

怎样编辑视频

sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video

Text-to-Speech

Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech

编程/网页开发 

Quanta Plus

(Quanta是一个KDE应用程序,但也能在工作在GNOME中) 安装Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc 网站创建软件:

sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia
Applications > Programming > Quanta Plus

Netbeans IDE

Netbeans 是一个平台非依赖的Java 集成开发环境。但它也能以插件的形式支持C/C++, Ruby, portals 和其他一些工具。从编写的角度看,5.5版是最新的稳定版本并且可以如下方式安装:

sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5

或者您可以下载 Netbeans 6.0 并手动安装它。安装包的大小会从 11 MB 到 200 MB不等。

Netbeans Web & Java EE 集成包

如果您想使用NetBeans来进行网站开发并集成Java EE,下载 "Netbeans with Web & Java EE" 集成包,对于安装附加模块的插件机制不受推荐,因为它将其安装在用户目录(~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/)而不是系统范围内的安装目录(/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/) 

Netbeans Web & Java EE 集成包带有2个内建的运行环境:

  • GlassFish V2 Build 58g
  • Apache Tomcat 6.0.14

他们对开发和出品都十分有利。这样您就不用分别安装Sun Java Application Server和Apache Tomcat。同样,卸载Netbeans将不会卸载他们。您需要分别卸载他们。

但如果您想要另外安装服务器,通常您需要以root身份运行Netbeans。或者您也可以改变Tomcat和GlassFish配置文件的用户/组和权限以使他们和Netbeans协同工作。

Eclipse IDE

Eclipse IDENetbeans IDE 之外的另一个选择。事实上,它或许在Linux用户中更流行。您可以从 Eclipse website 直接安装它或者使用 apt-get来安装:

sudo apt-get install eclipse

Anjuta IDE

Anjuta 是一个主要用作 C/C++ 开发的集成开发环境。不如其他集成开发环境那样可靠。然而,它仍有一些有用的插件提供了大多数其他集成开发环境所具有的功能。(GUI 开发, 项目向导,等)

sudo apt-get install anjuta

实用工具

压缩工具

Zip, Gzip 和 Bzip2 是几乎所有Linux上都提供的最流行的压缩工具。但也有较新的两种压缩工具可供使用:p7zip (http://7-zip.org/), ace and rar (http://www.rarlab.com/)。 7-zip 是一个开源项目,而 rar and ace 不是。

sudo apt-get install rar unrar
sudo apt-get install p7zip-full 
sudo apt-get install unace

Ark 是KDE中的压缩工具并支持包括rar在内的更多格式。

sudo apt-get install ark

 剪贴板管理器(Glipper)

要安装Glipper只需简单运行:

sudo apt-get install glipper

或者使用System > Administration 菜单下中的Synaptic Package Manager来搜索和安装 "glipper" 包。

密码管理器 (KeePassX)

KeePass是一个跨平台的密码管理器。安装它只需简单运行:

sudo apt-get install keepassx

或者使用System > Administration 菜单下中的Synaptic Package Manager来搜索和安装 "keepassx" 包。

怎样修复/集成nautilus的蓝牙功能

在某些系统中蓝牙设备的 "Browse Device" 功能不能正常工作。

要修复这个问题:

sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp

或者

sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp

怎样安装 Google Earth (地球仪软件)

Google earth是一个世界地图查看器. 它可以3D的形式显示的建筑以及桥梁. 默认的时候它是显示的是静态的图片. 最新版式中包含了鸟瞰世界的功能. 点击 这里 查看更多相关的信息.

Google Earth is available in the Medibuntu Package archive. To install google-earth from Medibuntu:

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update sudo aptitude install googleearth

除此之外您还可以直接从Google下载安装程序进行安装:

下载 Google Earth到您的桌面. 打开终端并运行n:

chmod +x Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin

按照说明完成安装. 卸载Google earth,执行以下命令:

sudo su /opt/google-earth/uninstall

怎样安装 Picasa (Google 开发的照片管理工具)

Picasa 是一款帮助您立即查找、编辑和共享在您的电脑上的所有照片的软件. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:

sudo apt-get install picasa
  • 下载 自解压安装程序并按照说明配置 Google Earth.
  • 安装Windows (需要WINE支持).

如何安装 Google Desktop

Google Desktop (search utility)


Google Desktop 是一个桌面搜索应用程序,它可以让您很容易的获取您计算机和网络当中的信息.


Desktop 让搜索您自己的电子邮件、文件、音乐、照片变得如同使用Google搜索网络一样简单。您通过下面两种途径下载Google Desktop:

sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux

怎样安装 ntop (网络监控工具)

Ntop 是一个网络监控工具。您可以监控本地的设备以及有 Netflow 输出的设备 (例如一个 Cisco 路由器)。它也很容易安装,打开一个终端并输入:

sudo apt-get install ntop

现在它已经安装好了,您需要做一些基本的设置。再一次在终端中输入:

sudo ntop

您会被要求输入一个密码,然后确认这个密码。这将成为ntop网页界面的管理员密码。接下来,我们需要安装 "Dot", 它是 "Graphviz" 包的一部分:

sudo apt-get install graphviz

现在,再一次在终端中输入:

sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start

行了! ntop 运行了! 尝试浏览 http://127.0.0.1:3000 来开始吧。您将需要把dot的路径添加到 ntop 的设置中。

Admin -> Configure (Enter admin user/pass) -> Preferences

在最后加入一个新的设置:

dot.path /usr/bin/dot

您现在应该可以从IP -> Local -> Network Traffic Map 得到一个网络的图像了。

访问 http://www.ntop.org/ 获取更多信息。

怎样安装经文学习软件

怎样安装 Gnomesword (圣经学习程序)
sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
  • 如果您需要其他的语言类型:
sudo apt-cache search bible
  • 查看类似 sword-language-pack 以及 sword-text 的包来寻找和安装需要的附加语言。

Gnomesword 可以在 Applications-->Accessories 下找到。

  • 在 KDE 中,使用 kio-sword 来替代 Gnomesword:
sudo apt-get install kio-sword
怎样安装古兰经研究工具 (Zekr)

Zekr 是一个开放平台的古兰经学习工具,使用它可以简便地浏览和研究古兰经。

sudo wget http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/zekr.list 
wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-me-quran ttf-sil-scheherazade sudo apt-get install ttf-farsiweb flashplugin-nonfree
  • Zekr 带有附加的古兰经翻译版本,包括波斯语, 乌尔都语, 法语, 俄语, 英语, 土耳其语, 波斯尼亚语, 德语。他们的包名称为zekr-quran-translations-XY,这里 XY 是语言的 ISO 码。 在终端中运行:
apt-cache search zekr-quran-translations

可以列出他们。然后从结果列表中选择适合的包并安装它。例如:如果你想安装英文古兰经则执行以下命令:

sudo apt-get install zekr-quran-translations-en

怎样安装教育软件

How to install Mnemosyne

Mnemosyne is a sophisticated free flash-card tool which optimizes your learning process. To install the latest version in the repositories run the following command

sudo apt-get install mnemosyne

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System => Administration menu, to locate and install the mnemosyne package.

To install the latest version (the one in the repository is somewhat out of date) first install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install python python-pygame python-qt3 python-support python-xml

then download the latest source package from here:

wget http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

(correct as of 11 Nov 2007)

Decompress it:

tar -xzf mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

go to the directory

cd mnemosyne-0.9.10/

run this command to install it:

sudo python setup.py install

To create a launcher for it in your Applications Menu:

System => Preferences => Main Menu => Education (or wherever) => New Item:

Name: Mnemosyne Command: mnemosyne

安全 

怎样重设用户密码

sudo apt-get install john

sudo john /etc/shadow

怎样重设ROOT用户的密码

重启Ubuntu进入安全模式并输入:

passwd


来修ROOT用的密码

怎样创建或修改GRUB启动菜单的密码

请点击这里.

如果忘记GRUB启动菜单的密码怎样修改root用户的密码

点击 这里. To prevent this, you have to set a bios password and set hard disk as the first boot device.

服务器

Samba 服务器

怎样安装 Samba 服务器来共享文件以及文件夹

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

怎样添加/修改/删除网络用户

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
  • 将下行添加到新文件中
system_username = "network username"
  • 保存编辑过的文件
  • 修改网络用户 
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • 要删除网络用户 
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

如何以只读或读写权限

共享主文件夹(Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • 找到这一行 
...
security = user 
...
  • 用下面两行替换
security = user 
username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • 移除下面每行前的分号“;”(there will text in between explaining what they do):
;[homes] ;comment = Home 
;Directories 
;browseable = no 
;valid users = %S 
;writable = yes
  • 如果希望其他网络用户有权编辑文件夹,则修改以下行
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next 
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them. 
; writable = no
  • 用下面一行代替 
writable = yes
sudo testparm sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/group

sudo chmod 777 /home/group/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following lines
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]

comment = Group Folder path = /home/group public = yes writable = no valid users = system_username1 system_username2 create mask = 0700 directory mask = 0700 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
writable = yes
  • Save the edited file
  • Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/public

sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following lines
security = user

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]

comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = yes create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
writable = yes
  • 2. Save the edited file
  • 2. Read [[|#How to add/edit/delete network users]]
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service]]
sudo mkdir /home/public

sudo chmod 777 /home/public/ sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

  • Find this line
...
security = user

...

  • Replace with the following line
security = share

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of /etc/samba/smb.conf (for a read-only folder)
[public]

comment = Public Folder path = /home/public public = yes writable = no create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 force user = nobody force group = nogroup

  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
writable = yes


  • 2. Save the edited file
sudo testparm

sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

  • Read [[|#Print Server (cupsd)]]
  • Make sure your Ubuntu printers are configured properly.
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup

gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

Find the following lines
...
  1. printing = cups
  2. printcap name = cups

...

and uncomment them.
printing = cups

printcap name = cups

Restart cups server
sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.


iTunes-compatible Media server

If you want iTunes-compatible Media server in Ubuntu try this

GLPI - IT and asset Managemet Software

If you want IT and asset Managemet Software in Ubuntu try this

PostgreSQL

Postgresql is a well supported and open source database server. There is a long debate regarding whether MySQL is better or PostgreSQL. Actually, there are similar debates like it: Gnome vs KDE, Perl vs Python, PHP vs JSP, Java vs .Net (or Mono). But from installation point of view, it has been seen that PostgreSQL is lighter and requires less dependency than MySQL.

Installing PostgreSQL

To Install PostgreSQL (both client and server):

sudo apt-get install postgresql-8.2

To install PostgreSQL documentation:

sudo apt-get install postgresql-doc-8.2

To install JDBC3 driver for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install libpg-java

To enable php support for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install php5-pgsql

To do administrative works graphically:

sudo apt-get install pgadmin3

To do web-based administrative works:

sudo apt-get install phppgadmin

Configuring PostgreSQL

To use postgresql, create a database instance and a user/role:

sudo -u postgres createdb $USER

sudo -u postgres createuser $USER

Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:

psql

To login as the administrator:

sudo -u postgres psql

To be able to login from remote machine or from PHP or through JDBC driver, you have to set your password from PostgreSQL client (psql):

ALTER USER user PASSWORD 'pass';

replace user and pass by your user name and password respectively. To test whether remote login works or not, run:

psql -h host -p 5432 -d database -U user

Visit http://www.php.net/manual/en/ref.pgsql.php to see how php works with PostgreSQL.

Using pgadmin3

To configure PostgreSQL using pgadmin3:

  • Open psql client as administrator postgres (see above Configure PostgreSQL)
  • Change the password for the administrator postgres (see above)
  • Open Applications -> System Tools -> pgAdmin III from main menu.
  • Open File -> Add Server...
  • Set Address to localhost or 127.0.0.1 (or something you have set)
  • Give a Description by which this connection will be identified.
  • Accept default port (5432), SSL (_blank_), Maintenance DB (postgres) and Username (postgres)
  • set the Password that you have set earlier. Click OK.

Using phppgadmin

To configure PostgreSQL using phppgadmin run:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/phppgadmin /var/www/phpPgAdmin

Set a password for administrator: postgres (see [[|#Configuring_PostgreSQL]]).

Open /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php and change:

$conf['extra_login_security'] = false;

It will enable administrative login. Finally visit http://localhost/phpPgAdmin/ to login.

Using PostgreSQL with OpenOffice

  • Open Applications -> Office -> OpenOffice.org Database.
  • Select 'Connect to an existing database'. From the list select JDBC and click Next.
  • Make Datasource URL to:
jdbc:postgresql://localhost/database

Replace localhost by your hostname, database by the database instance you have created.

  • Set JDBC driver class to:
org.postgresql.Driver
  • Click 'Test class' to make sure JDBC driver class connects Datasource URL properly. Click Next.
  • Type your User name and select 'Password required' option.
  • Click Test connection. A popup dialog will appear. Enter your password and click OK.
  • If everything works properly, then a confirmation dialog will appear.
  • Click Next. Some optional settings will appear. Click Finish to complete.

Using PostgreSQL JDBC driver

The following Java code is a simple program to illustrate how JDBC can be used with Postgresql:

// pgVersion.java

import java.sql.*;

class pgVersion {

public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {

if(arg.length!=4) { System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password"); return; } // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver"); Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver(); DriverManager.registerDriver(driver); String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&password="+arg[3]; Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); System.out.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); conn.close(); DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver); }

}

You can run the former code in two ways:

  • Using CLASSPATH environment variable:
export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:.

javac pgVersion.java java pgVersion host database user password

Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.

  • Alternately, you can run as follows:
javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java

java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password

The output is as expected:

PostgreSQL 8.2.5 on i486-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by GCC cc (GCC) 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Ubuntu 4.1.2-16ubuntu1)

MySQL

According to this page both MySQL and PostgreSQL are good alternatives of proprietary softwares like DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL Server etc.

To install both the server and client:

sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

db4free is a great database server for tryout different things remotely. If you want to use this site, then you do not have to install MySQL server. Just install the client, documentation and php or jdbc connectivity.

IBM DB2

Visit here for software available from IBM. According to this page, DB2 can be installed on ubuntu.

Download

To download DB2 trial visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Data Server trial. Then you have to sign in (create an account if not already created) in order to download. Choose either of the following:

  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on AMD64 and Intel(R) EM64T systems (x64)
  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on System z

Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Alternately, visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Express-C. Then choose DB2 Express-C 9.5 for Linux and click continue. Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally select either of the following:

  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture
  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 64-bit architecture

click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Installing DB2

I choose 'DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture' to demonstrate how to install. If you have chosen a different version, make necessary changes accordingly. Let's assume the downloaded file is on your home directory. Then do the following:

tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz

cd ~/exp sudo apt-get install libaio1 sudo ./db2setup

Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.

Uninstalling DB2

If you have installed with all default settings (as mentioned above) then just running the following commands would remove the db2 completely. In case you have changed something during installation, then make appropriate changes accordingly.

cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5

./instance/db2ilist sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1 sudo install/db2_deinstall -a cd && sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/ sudo userdel -r dasusr1 sudo userdel -r db2fenc1 sudo userdel -r db2inst1 sudo groupdel dasadm1 sudo groupdel db2fadm1 sudo groupdel db2iadm1

Before running those commands, please make sure:

  • Make sure, db2 is not running.
  • Identify DB2 installation directory (E.g /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5)
  • Identify DB2 instances (using db2ilist command, see the second command)
  • Drop each and every instances (using db2idrop command, third command)
  • If you have other IBM softwares in /opt/ibm then remove only /opt/ibm/db2 directory.
  • Delete user and group accounts that you have created for db2.

Oracle database

A problem might occur if your swap space is less than 1 GB. In that case you have to do the following:

  • Turn off the swap space. (run 'man swapoff' for help)
  • Resize the swap partition. (run 'man fdisk' and 'man cfdisk' for help)
  • Restart the system. (not mandatory, but recommended)
  • Edit the /etc/fstab file to update the UUID of the swap partition. ([[|#How_to_find_the_UUID_of_a_device]])
  • Turn on the swap space. (run 'man swapon' for help)

SSH

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to add extra repositories]]
sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu host

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]

The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]].

In this example:

Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.2 username is a valid user on the remote host

ssh [email protected]

You can tunnel to a URL as well:

ssh [email protected]

If your LAN uses a dynamic IP to connect to the Internet, you can use a Dynamic IP service (such as DynDNS) to assign a static URL to your LAN (foobar.dyndns.org, for example). An SSH request over the Internet to your URL (e.g. foobar.dyndns.org) would then be routed by the DynDNS service to your modem/router. Your router must then be set to forward the port used for the SSH tunnel to your host machine on the LAN. (SSH tunnels generally occur by default over port 22, but it can be changed (see below)).

For some humor: Read Etymology of foobar. You can explicitly select the port number (instead of port 22) for the SSH tunnel:

ssh [email protected]:11022

However, if you do this, the host SSH server must be listening on the same port (port 11022 in the example). The port to listen to can be set in the ssdh_config file of the OpenSSH server (provided in Ubuntu) on your host. Also, your router must be configured to forward port 11022 to your OpenSSH host.

How to change SSH Server Port Number

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]]

Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config for editing

gksu gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Look for the line

# What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for

Port 22

Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

Using SSH to Port Forward

  • Read [[|#General Notes]]
  • The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read [[|#How to install SSH Server for remote administration service]].
  • The format of the client command to create an SSH tunnel to an OpenSSH host listening on the default port 22 is:
ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

An example is:

ssh -L 6669:94.92.10.15:6667 foowho

In this example, local port 6669 on the local client computer is tunneled by encrypted SSH over the default port 22 to the router at 94.92.10.15. The router must be set up to forward port 22 to whatever the internal LAN IP (such as 192.168.0.56) of the SSH host is. The host is running OpenSSH (ssdh service) and is set to listen to port 22. It then routes the incoming data to the host port 6667, where presumably some other program is waiting for data. foowho has an account on the host running the OpenSSH server.

SSH tunnels can also be established using URLs and even alternate ports. An example is:

ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho -p 11022

In this example, local port 5900 on the client is forwarded through an SSH tunnel on port 11022 to foobar.dyndns.org. The DNS service translates foobar.dyndns.org into the appropriate WAN (Internet) IP address, where the router is listening. The router is set up to forward port 11022 to the LAN machine hosting the OpenSSH server, which is listening on port 11022. It then sends the data to whatever program is running on port 5900 on the host.

  • You can forward a local port to a different port on the remote host.
Example: Make port 80 (web server/browser) on the remote host at 10.0.2.10 available locally as port 81
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 [email protected]
  • You can create secure SSH tunnels to multiple hosts using multiple ports.
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 [email protected]

Now, local port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.10, local port 82 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.20 and local port 83 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.30. In this example, user has an account on all three host machines at 10.0.2.10, 10.0.2.20, and 10.0.2.30.

  • Once port forwarding is set up by ssh, an application is directed to the SSH tunnel for port usage by using the loopback as the destination.
Example 1:
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 [email protected]
http://localhost:81 or http://127.0.0.1/:81 

will direct a web browser to use port 81 locally, which is being redirected by SSH to port 80 on the remote host at 10.0.2.10.

Example 2:
ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho

vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost

will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.

SSH Filesystem

install package: sshfs, see http://fuse.sourceforge.net/sshfs.html

sudo aptitude update

sudo aptitude install sshfs

Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.

sudo adduser <local user> fuse

(propogate new group membership: restart or open new shell, e.g., Ctrl+Alt+F1)

Create writable mount point, e.g, <mount point> = /media/remote

sudo mkdir <mount point>

sudo chgrp fuse <mount point> sudo chmod 775 <mount point>

Mount command

sshfs [<user>@]<host>:[<path>] <mount point>

Unmount command

fusermount -u <mount point>

Ubuntu 7.10 LAMP Server

If you are looking for simple LAMP Server setup in 15min including webmin installation this is for you

(This requires the server version of Gutsy Gibbon, not the standard desktop edition)

How to Install Webmin

如何安装Webmin

Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More. Webmin是一个基于浏览器管理Apache,PHP,Mysql的工具。

wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.370_all.deb


sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl

sudo passwd root (将要输入新的管理员密码)

sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.370_all.deb 

To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)

如果使用Webmin,输入以下的链接到浏览器(确保能使用权https,而不是http)

https://localhost:10000

Sun Java Application Server (Java EE)

Official documentation

Installing Application Server

Sun Java Application Server is the heart of Java EE. Download either of the following versions:

  • Java EE 5 SDK Update 3
  • Java Application Platform SDK Update 3 Beta
  • Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 (under individual download section)

Alternately you can download GlassFish application server (community maintained):

Make the download file executable and run as root by:

chmod +x Desktop/filename

sudo ./Desktop/filename

Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant

The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. Ant is also useful to automate building process.

Application Server configuration

When Java EE installs, a domain 'domain1' is automatically installed with it in $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ which is the default directory for all domains. Generally this directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) is not writable. So, as a unprivileged user you can create your own domain in your home directory.

Application Server domain settings

To create, start, stop and delete a domain in your home directory:

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain

asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain

Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.

sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain asadmin start-domain mydomain asadmin stop-domain mydomain asadmin delete-domain mydomain

If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.

asadmin start-domain

asadmin stop-domain

You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:

asadmin login --host localhost --port 4848

Deploying and un-deploying a web or ejb module is very easy. Just do the following:

asadmin deploy test1.war

asadmin deploy test2.ear

asadmin undeploy test1.war asadmin undeploy test2.ear

Application Server data Source settings

DataSource configuration can be done easily from web based administration console. Here command line method is given:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar

asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property

serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql

asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database

First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:

Context ic = new InitialContext();

DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection();

To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:

asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools

asadmin list-jdbc-resources

To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.

asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database

asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql

Tomcat 6

Installing tomcat

Tomcat can be found in universe repository but it has some drawbacks (e.g. lots of dependencies, unavailability of version 6.x, do not use Sun Java). Thus manual installation is recommended.

Download latest stable version of tomcat from here and extract it in /usr/local as root. Add "JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/" to /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/setclasspath.sh after the first occurrence of "CLASSPATH=". Make sure that sun-java6-jre is installed. Make a soft-link of /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/catalina.sh as /usr/local/bin/tomcat to access easily. Optionally you can remove .exe and .bat files and edit .sh files to remove cygwin, os400 and darwin related codes.

Although not necessary, but the ant program would be useful here. You can also install its documentation.

OpenEJB Server

OpenEJB is an open source, modular, configurable, and extendable EJB Container System and EJB Server. Visit here to see the installation instructions for OpenEJB under Tomcat 6.

Using tomcat with NetBeans

You have to make the configuration files readable because Netbeans generally do not run with administrative privilege. To use Tomcat with with NetBeans, you have to set a user with manager role. A typcal $CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml file would look like:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>

<tomcat-users>

<role rolename="admin"/>

<role rolename="manager"/> <role rolename="tomcat"/> <user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/> <user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/> <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>

</tomcat-users>

Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the <tomcat-users> element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web & Java EE pack.

Configure Database Connection Pool (DBCP) of Tomcat

A database connection pool creates and manages a pool of connections to a database. Recycling and reusing already existing connections to a dB is more efficient than opening a new connection. It is still possible and valid to open and close connection for each servlet/jsp (visit [[|#Using_JDBC_driver]] for details).

Before proceeding, let's assume that $CATALINA_HOME denotes tomcat installation directory (typically: /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.0.14).

echo $CATALINA_HOME

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes

Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" version="2.5">

<resource-ref>

<description>PostgreSQL connectivity</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/postgresql</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref>

<description>

Page for testing </description> <display-name>Testing page</display-name> <servlet> <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name> <servlet-class>pgsqlVersion</servlet-class> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/pgsqlVersion</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<Context>

<Resource

name="jdbc/postgresql" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver" url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database" username="user" password="password" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/> <WatchedResource>WEB-INF/web.xml</WatchedResource> <WatchedResource>META-INF/context.xml</WatchedResource>

</Context>

Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:

import java.io.*;

import java.sql.*; import javax.sql.*; import javax.naming.*; import javax.servlet.*; public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {

public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {

try { response.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter(); Context initContext = new InitialContext(); Context envContext = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env"); DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection(); Statement stat=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()"); rs.next(); pw.println(rs.getString("version")); rs.close(); stat.close(); } catch(Exception e) { } }

}

Create index.html and set its content:

<title>PostgreSQL datasource</title><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">





Then compile the servlet:

export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:.

javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java

Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!


Nagios Network Monitoring Server

It should be noted that this howto instructs you to build nagios from its sources, while it exists on the official repositories.

NFS Server

  • Read Linux NFS FAQ
  • Run this command for each computer to determine the IP Addresses for each one:
ifconfig

Installing NFS Server

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Reconfigure Portmap to not bind to loopback interface:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap 

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

Define which folders to share (export):

sudo nano /etc/exports

Add share (export) definitions:

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read/Write access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(rw,no_root_squash,async)

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read Only access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(ro,async)

192.168.1.0/24 above would be the clients IP Address

When finished, save changes and restart the NFS Server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Export your new configuration:

sudo exportfs -a

Installing NFS Client

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common

Mounting Manually

cd ~

mkdir temp sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp

192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address

You may need to restart NFS services:

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart

自动挂载

首先创建挂载路径:

sudo mkdir /mnt/files

然后修改配置文件:

gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

在配置文件中加上类似于下面的内容:

192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0

保存文件,然后测试一下刚才的修改:

sudo mount -a

最后,重新启动你的系统,以测试是否成功的自动挂载了。

硬件

NVidia 驱动

首先,弄清楚您清楚您是什么内核运行以下命令查看:

[email protected]:~$ uname -a 

Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux

我安装了generic的内核,所以我要安装以下的软件包:

sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic

上面的操作做完后,打开系统>系统管理>受限驱动管理器,打开驱动程序。

有时可能会遇到弹出错误对话框的情况:“包含nvidia-glx-new软件包的软件源并没有启用。”这个问题可以通过勾选'系统>系统管理>软件源中“从Internet上下载”下的复选框,然后点击“关闭”以使ubuntu重新加载软件源而解决。这样Nvidia的驱动就可以通过上面的方法启用。'

可以通过下面的方法禁用启动时显示的nvidia商标:

sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo

Wacom 平板设备

默认情况下,Wacom平板的选项是被注释掉的。输入下面的命令修改 xorg.conf 文件。

gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

去掉 "#" 以取消注释,或者替换以下三行:

InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents" 
InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents" 
InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"

保存并重新启动您的X会话,请按 CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE.


微软Intellimouse

为了确保滚轮和侧键能够被正确识别,需要将/etc/X11/xorg.conf中mouse区段修改成下面这样:

Section "InputDevice" 
 Identifier "Configured Mouse" 
 Driver "mouse" Option "CorePointer" 
 Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" 
 Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2" 
 Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" 
 Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true" 
 Option "Buttons" "7" 
 Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection 

如果你想在firefox中使用滚轮而不是侧键来滚动,设置 "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" 以及 "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".

现在你可以重启机器或者重启X(Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) 来检查你的前进/后退键在FireFox是不是工作正常。你可以在终端中用xev来测试。

Logitech Marble Mouse

To get the scrollwheel effect on Logitech trackball (Marble Mouse), change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

Section "InputDevice"

Identifier "MarbleMouse"

Driver "mouse" Option "Protocol" "auto" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Buttons" "5" Option "ButtonMapping" "1 8 3 6 7" Option "EmulateWheel" "true" Option "EmulateWheelTimeout" "300" # msec Option "EmulateWheelButton" "6" Option "YAxisMapping" "4 5"

EndSection

Make sure that you have "MarbleMouse" under the server layout section as well.

The big left and right buttons work normally (click, right click) and pressing them at the same time acts as a middle click. Holding the small left button will let you scroll up and down with the trackball. Clicking small left and right buttons will let you go back/forward in firefox.

Thanks to imjustabill and Buffalo Soldier from the Ubuntu Forum. This works well on my computer.

Logitech MX510

To have the extra buttons on your MX510 working with X, you'll have to install and configure the evdev-drivers. Open up a terminal and enter:

sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-evdev 

Now, all you have to do is configure Xorg to work with the new driver. Always remember to back up original files before altering:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Locate and replace the InputDevice section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier Configured Mouse, and replace it with:

Section "InputDevice"
  Identifier "Configured Mouse"
  Driver "evdev"
  Option "CorePointer"
  Option "Name" "Logitech MX510"
  EndSection 

Logout or kill the X session using <CTRL><ALT><BACKSPACE> and login again. This should get all of your buttons and scrollwheel up and running, and even let you navigate the webbrowser history using the thumb buttons on the side.

Disable CAPS LOCK

I like to remap mine to <Ctrl>. Just run gnome-keyboard-properties with "System > Preferences > Keyboard", click on the "Layout Options" tab and then on the arrow next to "Ctrl key position". Selecting "Make CapsLock an additional Ctrl" does the trick.

Enabling NUM LOCK at boot

The Default behavior is for the NUM LOCK key to be off; if you are on a desktop and have a keypad though, entering digits from it can be much quicker and you may wish to have it enabled for entering login password, etc. Here's how:

  • From Synaptic, download and install "numlockx," or, from the command line;
sudo apt-get install numlockx
  • To get it working, you now have to edit the appropriate startup file. First, make sure you have a working backup of the file:
sudo cp /etc/gdm/Init/Default /etc/gdm/Init/Default.bak
  • Next, modify the gdm/Init file. In terminal:
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/Init/Default
  • Scroll down to the end of the file, and above the line that says "exit 0" add the following:
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then

/usr/bin/numlockx on fi

  • Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on."

BSNL Broadband (dataone) speedup

BSNL Broadband or Dataone provides high speed (2Mbps) Internet connectivity in India. The DNS servers provided by the BSNL (61.1.96.69 and 61.1.96.71) are very slow. Instead use Either of these:

208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 or

4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or

search Google for free DNS service providers.

Citrix ICA client

The Citrix client no longer suffers from any of the previous Ubuntu version's problems of UTF8 font issues, OpenMotif depends, or flaky/broken browser integration. It just works!

  • Download the latest en.linuxx86.tar.gz (currently v10.6) from Citrix.com and save to your desktop
  • Right-click tar.gz file, and Extract Here
  • Open a Terminal
Programs > Accessories > Terminal
  • Change to the directory where we extracted the client
cd Desktop/en.linuxx86
  • Run the setup program
./setupwfc
  • Select the defaults

Now, web files from Metaframe Presentation Server, Citrix Access Gateway, etc webpages will work fine in Firefox.

Someone may wish to add an entry on how to use the client to connect to a local Citrix farm.

WINE

最新的安装说明在:WineHQ.org

    添加软件仓库密钥:

wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

    添加 apt 软件仓库:

sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list

    更新 apt 软件仓库:

sudo apt-get update

安装 WINE:

sudo apt-get install wine

 所有程序菜单将出现在 Wine 菜单下,或者直接双击一个 Windows/DOS 可执行文件。

安装Internet Explorer 6 for Wine

不推荐使用 IE6 做日常应用,但是一些 Windows 软件包(通过 Wine 安装的)要求 IE6 已经被完整安装。进一步说,IE 6 对于想检验他们自己做的网页在 IE6 上的显示效果的开发者来说有用。

安装 IE6 所必须的 cabextract 可以从新利得软件包管理器中获取(或者直接在终端输入 apt-get install cabextract)。

从IEs4Linux网站下载并运行IEs4Linux安装脚本: 

wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz

tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz cd ies4linux-* ./ies4linux

这里有一个测试版的安装http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads
如果您打算安装 IE 7,对于 Amd64 用户来说可能导致无法使用。但是IE6 是不区分 amd64 或i386的。

接受所有的默认安装设置。

Wine-Doors

Wine-Doors 在 [4] 打包了可以通过 Wine 运行的 Windows 下的软件。这些软件包的列表其中包括了 Internet Explorer 6。

Debian/Ubuntu 软件包 (单击安装) 可以在此处下载

VMWare Server

直到 Ubuntu 商业软件仓库收录了 VMWare Server,您可以根据 'How To' 上讲到的来从源代码编译。

VMWare 工具

如果您打算在您的 Ubuntu Gusty 上安装 VMware tools,请遵循以下步骤:

若使其正常使用 USB 驱动设备,请仔细阅读下面的 bug 说明:https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5

如何安装博通(BoardCom)无限上网驱动

  • 这个可以用于我的32位版 Kubuntu 7.10 但是它有很多种方法实现
  • 首先,确认您的硬件型号是正确的
lspci | grep Broadcom
  • 其输出应符合如下
02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
  • 然后,您就可以添加新的软件仓库了
gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • 在编辑器中加入
deb http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
  • 接下来执行下面内容来增加一个密钥
wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • 回到终端
sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware

  • 此时尽管去按 yes,让他安装,然后重启!感谢 Pete 和 7.04 向导提供。

要求

如果您对这份指南的一部分有您的要求或改进方案,请在 Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy 中写下。

问题解决

将您在使用 Gusty 时遭遇的问题贴在这里 。他们将想办法解决它,或者可以将它用于解决其他的类似毛病。

OpenOffice 拼写检查问题

这个问题不是一个漏洞。一部分语言没有内置拼写检查的支持。像其他人一样,举个例子,"英文 (印度)" 就不支持拼写检查,但是"英文 (美国)" 却支持。直接找到:

工具 -> 选项 -> 语言设置 -> 语言

然后选择一个名称前面带有对钩的西方语种,就是这样。

如果您想添加某种语言的拼写检查功能, 安装名为 myspell-<语言> 的软件包,其中 <语言> 替换为您打算安装的语言缩写,例如:

sudo apt-get install myspell-fr 

这样就可以安装法语词典了。

Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout

SCIM might not work properly under Gutsy Gibbon, although works fine under Feisty Fawn. Until the problem is fixed, you can use the alternative method to switch keyboard layout.

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Language Support and install the languages you want to use.
  • Open System -> Preferences -> Keyboard and add the layout that you want to use from Layouts tab.
  • Right click on the free space of upper panel and select "Add to panel...". Add Keyboard Indicator.

Fix Slow boot/faulty splash screen

if your system is booting slowly or your ubuntu splash screen is not being displayed it could be that Usplash has created the splash screen incorrectly

1) edit /boot/grub/menu.lst

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

At the very end of the kernel line after "splash" , add

"vga=***" 

replace *** with the code from the table below that corresponds with the resolution and colour setting you are using

Screen 640x480 800x600 1024x768 1280x1024 1600x1200
Colors
256 769 771 773 775 796
32,768 784 787 790 793 797
65,536 785 788 791 794 798
16.8M 786 789 792 795 799

the line should look something like this

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.22-14-generic root=UUID=20fd9912-6383-4860-9cd8-88a11909d715 ro quiet splash vga=791

Save that file, close it,

2) edit /etc/usplash.conf

sudo gedit /etc/usplash.conf

change the resolution to the one you set in the previous step save and close

3) rebuild the bootsplash screen

sudo update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`

This rebuilds the image that Grub uses to start the system.

4) reboot

Logout problem

Some users have have faced a hangout problem when whey press the quit button. Currently the following symptom and work-around have been noticed:

  • Press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to kill X-Window and show the GDM screen.
  • gnome-power-manager service should be on. You can enable it from System->Preferences->Sessions.
  • Wait for 1 minute. The quit window will appear. (the logout problem will vanish for some times).
  • For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.

问题&提示

在这里加入Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Trick中已列出的问题是无意义的,所以,请您只添加新的问题进来。

 Ubuntu"死机“时怎么办

有无数种原因可能导致系统崩溃,可能是程序的bug,可能是内存管理的问题,或者其它任何原因。当你的计算机停止响应时,不要总想着去按“电源”键关机!在你强行关掉电源前试试以下几种简单的方法:


  1. 计算机停止响应了吗?先试着按<Ctrl><Alt><F1>键来进入虚拟终端。这样计算机仍在你掌控中,你可以停掉导致系统无响应的程序。
  2. 如果你不能进入虚拟终端,再试试重启图形界面吧,方法是<Ctrl><Alt><backspace>。所有在这个图形界面中打开的应用程序都将被关闭,登录界面出现,你可以重获系统控制权。
  3. 如果前面两个都失败了,我们重启吧。最安全的做法就是按<Ctrl><Alt><Delete>。电脑将运行关机脚本,安全重启。
  4. 如果由于关机脚本的问题导致方法3失败,那么就重新按下3中所说那三个键。当然这样是不安全的,因为系统可能不会unmount掉文件系统。
  5. 必杀技:如果试了以上方法都无效,有一条小秘决,别人我不告诉他。其实系统核心有一条小小的用户空间通信管道保持畅通,在你的核心崩溃时(这个方法我还没试过,谁去试试?)你可以通过以下方法安全重启。这个方法是安全的,但切记只有所有尝试失败後再这样做!按下<Ctrl><Alt><PrtScrn/SysRq>键,别放开,然後输入以下字母(确保按顺序)REISUB。系统会unmount掉mount的所有本地文件系统,安全关机。什么?这个字母序列很难忘?把它倒过来读读“busier"。

如何找到一个驱动器的UUID代号

  • 初于什么原因,如果你打算修改分区表或者在计算机上增加一个硬盘驱动器,这将对你非常有用。
  • 当他们(驱动器)的 UUID 改变时,在启动中将遇到错误。
  • 使用<Ctrl>-D 将允许勉强继续启动,但是想要修复这个问题,你需要:

-> 打开 fstab 文件:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

-> 在另一个终端中运行如下命令:

ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/ 

-> 或者,也可以输入下面这个命令来列出驱动器:

blkid
  • 在 fstab 中,带有 UUID 的部分或其它相关不相符的地方都要依次更正。最简单的方法,你可以复制、粘贴它们。<译者注:如果根目录没有修改,直接用的 /dev+下面的设备名称来代替 UUID>
  • 有的其它的地方也应该相应的修改,好比说装载点、文件系统格式(ext2, ext3, ntfs...等等) , 选项, dump,跳过...等等。

更多关于如何修改编辑 fstab 的文章点击此处:

  • 如果要列出指定设备的 UUID,输入:
sudo vol_id -u device
  • 其中 device 可能是 /dev/sdxy.

例:sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1

Enable vim syntax highlighting

The source of vi/vim command is vim-tiny package which does not support syntax highlighting. Install vim:

sudo apt-get install vim

Then open /etc/vim/vimrc and uncomment syntax on

Replace

"syntax on

With

syntax on

HAL

If you have problem failed to initialize HAL, and devices such as card reader,or shutdown problem, power meter doesn´t appear..please find this line in /etc/init.d/rc

sudo vim /etc/init.d/rc find this line : CONCURRENCY=shell

To fix this:

sudo nautilus


Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder rc2.d rename s12hal to s13hal

the problem was HAL loading before DBUS and causing such error. this should fiz the problem, if not

sudo gedit /etc/init.d/rc

and turn CONCURRENCY=shell to CONCURRENCY=none

Enable Sirius Internet Radio for Firefox

Launch the player from www.sirius.com. After authenticating, you will now be able to select which stream to play. Selecting the stream will launch vlc.

Remove unwanted language/locale files

sudo apt-get install localepurge

sudo localepurge

登录後自动运行 pidgin

打开“系统 -> 首选项 -> 会话”。单击“添加”按钮。在弹出的对话框中填写名称“Pidgin”,命令“/usr/bin/pidgin”。单击“确定”,然後保证添加的这一行被勾选上即可。

sudo/gksu without password

EDITOR=gedit gksu visudo

Find "Defaults !lecture,tty_tickets,!fqdn" and replace by "Defaults timestamp_timeout=-1".

Speed-up Ubuntu

Open System -> Preferences -> Sessions and remove the startup programs that you do not need (e.g. Bluetooth Manager, Evolution Alarm Notifier, Restricted Driver Manager, Tracker, User folders update, Visual).

Open System -> Preferences -> Appearance and make Visual Effects to None.

Open System -> Administration -> Services and disable the services that you do not need (e.g. alsa-utils, bluetooth, brltty, hdparm, acpid, apmd, screen).

How to change the USplash Screen on startup/shutdown

When you add another Desktop Environment, the USplash screen may change (saying Kubuntu instead of Ubuntu). If you want to change it, do the following:

sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so

This will bring up a list of installed USplash screens. Type the number that corresponds to the one you want and press Enter. Then type:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure usplash

Then reboot.

Guide Development

Note: This section was taken from the Feisty Guide and edited appropriately.

Place ideas here to increase the look and performance of this guide.

  • Add a new section for Gnome Themes from http://art.gnome.org and KDE Themes from http://www.kde-look.org/.
  • Have entries under their headings in alphabetical order.
  • Try to keep the guide neat and clutter free.
  • Possible "Short Version" Table of contents without each "How to".
  • Add a [top] link to the end of each article.
  • If possible, include a 'find/search' function to easily access queries.
    • This can be done in Firefox with <Ctrl>-F.
  • instead of 'apt-get install', there could be the new Gutsy apturl feature for easier installation of software