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“Fluxbox”的版本间的差异

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(新页面: == Fluxbox == ---- * 原文出处:https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Fluxbox 原文作者: 授权许可:[http://www.creativecommons.cn/licenses/by-nc-sa/1.0/ 创作共用协议] * ...)
 
(styles)
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Note: fbsetbg is just a wrapper for other things that set wallpapers, such as Esetroot and feh. If you have one of those installed fbsetbg will determine the best one to use and use it. To find out what fbsetbg is using run <code><nowiki> fbsetbg -i </nowiki></code>
 
Note: fbsetbg is just a wrapper for other things that set wallpapers, such as Esetroot and feh. If you have one of those installed fbsetbg will determine the best one to use and use it. To find out what fbsetbg is using run <code><nowiki> fbsetbg -i </nowiki></code>
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注:fbsetbh只一个别的工具(Esetroot && feh 等)的套装包,只要你安装了其中之一,fbsetbg当会自动择优使用。要查看fbsetbg调用了哪一个,可以执行:<code><nowiki>fbsetbg -i </nowiki></code>
  
 
Feh can be found in the <code><nowiki>feh</nowiki></code> package.
 
Feh can be found in the <code><nowiki>feh</nowiki></code> package.
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Feh命令可以于feh包中找到:<code><nowiki>feh</nowiki></code>
  
 
Esetroot comes with ETerm, which can be found in the <code><nowiki>eterm</nowiki></code> package.
 
Esetroot comes with ETerm, which can be found in the <code><nowiki>eterm</nowiki></code> package.
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Esetroot由ETerm自带,同样可以于eterm包中找到它:<code><nowiki>eterm</nowiki></code>
  
 
==== Styles ====
 
==== Styles ====
 
You can set the background just fine, but what about the theme. Well there is good news and bad news. The good news is that Fluxbox ships with a lot of themes (called Styles) by default. The bad news is that they only affect the windows themselves, not the "interior". That means if you are running GTK apps, then they will use the default grayish theme. Now thats good on its own, but it can really mess up a colorscheme. You can change it though, but first how to install and use Styles themselves.
 
You can set the background just fine, but what about the theme. Well there is good news and bad news. The good news is that Fluxbox ships with a lot of themes (called Styles) by default. The bad news is that they only affect the windows themselves, not the "interior". That means if you are running GTK apps, then they will use the default grayish theme. Now thats good on its own, but it can really mess up a colorscheme. You can change it though, but first how to install and use Styles themselves.
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==== 样式 ====
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你能够把桌面背景设置得很漂亮,但有想过主题么?嗯,现有好坏消息各一。好消息是Fluxbox默认为我们准备了大量的主题(称为Styles)。坏消息是这样主题只能影响窗口界面,而不是“内部”。这意味着,如果你在运行一个GTK程序,这些程序将使用浅灰色的主题。尽管样式本身是不错的,但它们确实可能会打乱一个界面。所以,在你试着去改变它们之前,先得明白安装和使用它们。
  
 
Changing Styles is quite easy. Just to go the Styles submenu and click on it. Be warned though, some styles will override your background with their own, so you will have to change it back. Now what if you want to install a new style? Well first you have to know where to FIND them.
 
Changing Styles is quite easy. Just to go the Styles submenu and click on it. Be warned though, some styles will override your background with their own, so you will have to change it back. Now what if you want to install a new style? Well first you have to know where to FIND them.
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改变样式是极简单的啦。到样式子菜单,然后单击它。即使被警告,有些主题样式还会以自身的设置去改写你的桌面背景,所以你得自己再改回来。如要安装一新主题样式怎么办呢?嗯,第一步显然是得知道到哪儿能找到它们。
  
 
Here are some websites to get themes from:
 
Here are some websites to get themes from:
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* [http://themes.freshmeat.net/browse/962/ Freshmeat]
 
* [http://themes.freshmeat.net/browse/962/ Freshmeat]
 
* [http://www.boxwhore.org/ Boxwhore]
 
* [http://www.boxwhore.org/ Boxwhore]
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这儿有一些网页不可供参考:
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* [http://themes.freshmeat.net/browse/962/ Freshmeat]
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* [http://www.boxwhore.org/ Boxwhore]
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Once you find one you like, download the tarball to ~/.fluxbox and extract it. One of two things will happen. It will be a good tarball and just put its files into ~/.fluxbox/styles, or it will put them someplace else in ~/.fluxbox. If the former occurs, then you are all set, the theme is in the Styles menu now. In the case of the latter you will have to find its style directory and move the file in it to ~/.fluxbox/styles. Fortunately 99% of the time it will make its own directory and the style dir will be in that (this is why we extracted in ~/.fluxbox, there aren't many dirs in there to begin with so its obvious when a new one is made).
 
Once you find one you like, download the tarball to ~/.fluxbox and extract it. One of two things will happen. It will be a good tarball and just put its files into ~/.fluxbox/styles, or it will put them someplace else in ~/.fluxbox. If the former occurs, then you are all set, the theme is in the Styles menu now. In the case of the latter you will have to find its style directory and move the file in it to ~/.fluxbox/styles. Fortunately 99% of the time it will make its own directory and the style dir will be in that (this is why we extracted in ~/.fluxbox, there aren't many dirs in there to begin with so its obvious when a new one is made).
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一旦找到一个你喜欢的,将之下载到目录~/.fluxbox,然后解压。以下其中之一必将发生。此包打得规范,只将它的子文件放入~/.fluxbox/styles里面;另一种情况是,它会放到~/.fluxbox目录的其它地方。前者执行的话,你的设置就完成了,这个样式已在样式菜单中了。至于后种情况,你得找到它的style目录,并将里面的文件移动到~/.fluxbox/styles目录中。绝大多数情况(99.999%)下,它会自建目录,样式目录就在里面(我们将它解压到~/.fluxbox目录,是因为那儿没几个目录,倘一个新样式被建立,会是一目了然的)。
  
 
Now thats all well and good, but I mentioned being able to apply GTK Themes. Yes you can. Install GTK Theme Switch with <code><nowiki>gtk-theme-switch</nowiki></code> and run it with <code><nowiki> switch2 </nowiki></code>. A little dialog will pop up with a dropdown of all the GTK Themes installed. Just select and apply. Keep in mind that the Style will still be in control of the Window Decorations (Titlebar, window borders, etc), so if the GTK Theme normally sets those, it won't, but the rest of it will work. A good source of GTK Themes is [http://www.gnome-look.org GNOME-Look]. Stay away from the Metacity themes though. Those flat out won't work. Also if you need to install a new GTK theme, just download the tarball to ~/.themes and extract it.
 
Now thats all well and good, but I mentioned being able to apply GTK Themes. Yes you can. Install GTK Theme Switch with <code><nowiki>gtk-theme-switch</nowiki></code> and run it with <code><nowiki> switch2 </nowiki></code>. A little dialog will pop up with a dropdown of all the GTK Themes installed. Just select and apply. Keep in mind that the Style will still be in control of the Window Decorations (Titlebar, window borders, etc), so if the GTK Theme normally sets those, it won't, but the rest of it will work. A good source of GTK Themes is [http://www.gnome-look.org GNOME-Look]. Stay away from the Metacity themes though. Those flat out won't work. Also if you need to install a new GTK theme, just download the tarball to ~/.themes and extract it.

2007年6月4日 (一) 14:56的版本

Fluxbox


原文作者:

授权许可:创作共用协议

翻译人员:雕啸长空

校对人员:

贡献者:

适用版本:

文章状态:翻译中


Fluxbox简介---What is Fluxbox?

Fluxbox是一个基于GNU/Linux的轻量级图形操作界面,它虽然没有GNOME和KDE那样精美,但由于它的运行对系统资源和配置要求极低,所以它被安装到很多较旧的或是对性能要求较高的机器上,其菜单和相关配置被保存于用户根目录下的.fluxbox目录里,这样使得它的配置极为便利。

In Unix computing, Fluxbox is fast and light window manager for the X Window System based on Blackbox and compatible with it. Fluxbox looks like blackbox and handles styles, colors, window placement and similar thing exactly like blackbox. It has support for KDE (see Kubuntu), Xfce and Gnome applications. However, it does not depend on any other window manager.

Fluxbox是类Unix系统里一个极为轻量极的图形界面,它的运行速度相当快。它基于Blackbox并与之相兼容,这两者的窗体控件,色调等都极为相似。Fluxbox对KDE、Xfce、Gnome的程序支持也很不错。并且,它不需要借用其他的窗口管理器。

The basic interface has only a taskbar and a menu accessible by right-clicking on the desktop. Fluxbox also supports user created keyboard shortcuts.

Fluxbox默认的界面极为简洁,只有一个工具栏,并通过右键来调用系统菜单,同样它也支持自定义快捷键。

Fluxbox has a slick tabbing mechanism for windows. You can combine multiple windows into one window with tabs across the top by simply middle-clicking the tab of one window (and holding it down) and dragging and dropping on the tab of another window. This is very nice for cleaning up a desktop without exiling applications to other virtual desktops (it has those too).

Fluxbox有一个很出色的窗体标签功能,你可以通过鼠标中键拖拽将几个不同的窗体组合到一个窗口上,(#旁白:最终的效果使得每个窗口就和firefox里的tab子窗体一样),利用这个功能就可以把一大堆的程序窗口整理得井井有条,哪怕你把所有的窗体都放在同一个workspace里面.

Another nice feature is Fluxbox's support for docking applications (dockapps). Basically a dockapp runs as sort of an icon with minature display or controls. But not like an icon, more like small controls on a walkman (for example) as opposed to a big dial face of a home stereo. It aims to be lightweight and highly customizable, with only minimal support for graphical icons, and only basic interface style capabilities.

Fluxbox另一个很不错的功能就是支持dock程序,这种程序运行时会像桌面图标一样在桌面上显示(比时一些时桌,天气,日历,系统监视程序),由于Fluxbox至力于打造一个快速和高定制性的图形系统,所以它只提供了一些最基础的图标和主题。

In accordance with Fluxbox's goal of simplicity, the main menu, the keyboard shortcuts and the basic configuration are all changed by editing text files. Fluxbox's themes are 100% compatible with those of blackbox. Colors, gradients, borders, and several other basic appearance attributes can be specified; recent versions of Fluxbox support rounded corners and graphical elements. Fluxbox also has several features which blackbox lack, including tabbed windows, a feature familiar from PWM, and configurable titlebar.

Fluxbox界面朴素简单的风同样也体现在它的系统设置上。它的系统菜单,快捷键和其他的一些基本设置都是以文本文件的形式来保存的。Fluxbox的外观主题100%兼容blackbox,并且其主题的色彩,透明度,窗体边框及其他一些可视组件都可以个性化定制,最新发布的几个版本还实现了边框的圆滑效果和背景图支持;与blackbox相比,Fluxbox增加了一些特性,比如窗体标签(这是从PWM一些特性上吸收并改进过来的)和可定制的窗体标题栏。

为什么使用Fluxbox---Why use Fluxbox?

As mentioned above, Fluxbox runs very happily on very few system resources. As such, it is ideal for use on older hardware. (For this reason, it is the default window-manager of the very aptly-named DamnSmallLinux distribution.

正如前文所说,Fluxbox在低配置的电脑上运行得非常流畅,所以如果你的电脑年份已久,那Fluxbox也许是你一个很好的选择。正因为fluxbox有着速度快性能好的优点,还有人发行了以它为图形管理界面的专门linux发行版,比如 DamnSmallLinux

Fluxbox's minimalist aesthetic makes for a very efficient working environment; moreover, its window-tabbing feature is an excellent way to minimize clutter and maximize screen real estate. It is easily configurable using only text files, and will quickly result in an environment that the user enjoys and definitely reflects their own preferences. Fluxbox is adept at allowing the user to set their own desktop guidelines, degree of functionality, and style.

fluxbox界面的简洁并不影响它操作的快速和使用的便捷性。相反,它的很多特性可以极高的提高你使用计算机的效率,比如它的窗体标签功能,可以让你更有效的利用有限的桌面面积,而它灵活的定制性让你可以按自已的操作习惯定制最适合自己的操作环境,包括它的桌面,快捷键,系统菜单,外观等,都可以按用户的需要随心所欲地进行设置。

1.安装Fluxbox---STEP ONE: Installing Fluxbox

(N.B. The following installation instructions assume you are installing Fluxbox on a default Ubuntu installation, which uses GDM. Users wishing to install the absolute minimum should first consult the Installation/LowMemorySystems wikipage for instructions more particularly directed to minimal installations.)

(注意:接下来的安装指南假设你的电脑正在运行ubuntu的基本系统,并已安装了GDM。(希望安装ubuntu基本系统并以fluxbox作为图形界面的用户请参考wiki里面的另一篇文章Installation/LowMemorySystems,该文讲述了如何安装ubuntu基本系统)

This is the easy part. Fluxbox is in the universe repositories. Enable the universe repositories, either in Synaptic or by uncommenting them in your /etc/apt/sources.list file and then install the fluxbox package.

安装Fluxbox极为容易,Fluxbox已经包含在universe源里面,所以安装前需启用universe源,你可以选择在新立得里安装,也可以选择在终端里通过命令来安装Fluxbox---sudo apt-get install fluxbox;

Restarting the Xsession with CTRL + ALT + BACKSPACE would bring up GDM, and Fluxbox would then appear on the sessions menu. However, I would NOT restart the Xsession at this point.

安装完成之后,按下CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE启动GDM,这里sessions里应该有Fluxbox的选项了,但是,我不推荐在这个时候就重启GDM。

Why not? For some reason, the Fluxbox packages in Ubuntu's universe repositories create non-standard (at least for Fluxbox) xsession files, which means the ~/.fluxbox/startup configuration file is not automatically generated the first time Fluxbox runs.

为什么呢?由于某些原因,Fluxbox安装后并不会自动建立配置文件。

  • (!) This appears to have been fixed as of version 0.9.14, but you should check anyway.
  • 这个问题在Fluxbox0.9.14版已经修复了,但建议你还是自已确认一下.

Before we run Fluxbox, we must correct this oversight.

在使用Fluxbox之前,我们要先进行一些配置修改。

In a terminal, execute

执行以下命令

$ sudo nano /usr/share/xsessions/fluxbox.desktop

When you see the following text:

找到下面这段内容

exec=fluxbox

replace that line with

将它修改为:

exec=startfluxbox

Once you have finished editing /usr/share/xsessions/fluxbox.desktop , restart the X server and log into fluxbox.

完成以上修改之后,就可以重启并使用Fluxbox了

On some machines, Fluxbox seems to load very slowly. This can easily be fixed by adding the following line into your ~/.fluxbox/startup, right before startfluxbox:

在某些电脑上,Fluxbox可能会启动得很慢,在~/.fluxbox/startup里面加上下面这行就可以解决这个问题.

export LC_ALL=C

2.使用Fluxbox---STEP TWO: Using Fluxbox

As you might have gathered by now, Fluxbox does things a little differently from GNOME/KDE/XFCE.

如果你以前有使用过GNOME/KDE/XFCE,很容易就会发现Fluxbox的操作与前面三者有所不同

打开菜单选择你想要运行的程序---Getting the Menu and Running Programs

Unlike GNOME, KDE, and XFCE, Fluxbox has no "start" button. To get to the menu, simply right-click anywhere on the desktop. Submenus will expand if you simply mouse over them. To run a program, highlight its entry in the menu and click on it.

和GNOME,KDE,XFCE不同的是,Fluxbox并没有一个类似“开始”的按键来调用系统菜单,当你要打开系统菜单时,只需在桌面上点击鼠标右键,并选择你想运行的程序即可.

桌面间的切换---Workplace Switching

Turning the mousehweel over any unoccupied space on the desktop will page through the available workspaces. This can be a quick way of flipping from one workspace to the next.

在Fluxbox桌面上任何一处(鼠标不能位于程序的窗体上),通过转动鼠标中键就可以实现在各个桌面之间的切换.

窗体标签-Window Tabbing

Window tabbing is a good way of conserving screen real-estate and reducing clutter. It is a behavior unique to Fluxbox, and part of its appeal as a working environment. Middle-click on a window's title bar; keep holding the middle button down and drag onto another window. The two windows will appear to merge into a single window, with two title tabs. You can now view each tab within the newly-joined window by clicking on its respective title bar.

窗体标签功能是充分利用你的屏幕空间和管理较多数量程序窗体的有效途径。这是fluxbox独有的一个功能,很多人将它作为办公平台也正是被它的这一功能所征服的。用鼠标的中键点住某一个窗体的标题栏,然后拖到另一个窗体的标题栏上并放开鼠标中键,这两个窗体就组合在一起了。这时你只要通过左键在组合窗体的标题栏上点击就可以实现里面组合子窗体的切换了。

This is particularly useful if you are running an application from a terminal. By tabbing the application with its corresponding terminal window, it is easy to flip back and forth from the debug output in the terminal to the application.

如果你习惯于通过终端启动程序,就会发现这一特性有多棒了,将终端和通过这个终端启动的窗体组合在一起,你可以随机进行窗体切换来观察程序的后台运行状态。

第三步:系统设置与个性化定制-STEP THREE: Configuration & Customization

本节由ChrisPeterman题写-"Contributed by ChrisPeterman"

The base Fluxbox install is quite bare. You only have a little taskbar/systray/clock combo at the bottom and the very cool right click menu. But how the heck to you start doing stuff? You've heard that Fluxbox is very customizable right? Well, here comes the meat and potatoes of it. You should be very familiar with the terminal because you will be using it a lot to do various things. Also be familiar with your favorite text editor, because all of Fluxbox's fun configuration is controlled by text files in ~/.fluxbox. (~ means "current working directory".) Oh and unless I tell you, you won't need sudo for anything because you will be working in your home directory.

刚刚安装好的fluxbox是非常简洁的,你的桌面上只有一个工具栏,上面有工作台,窗体列表栏,系统图标,一个时钟外加一个很酷的右键主菜单。所以你肯定需要往里面加一些你自己所需要的东西;相信你肯定听过fluxbox灵活的定制性并对它垂涎已久吧?很好,接下来我们就开始品尝这道佳肴。不过在这之前你得把你的“餐具”准备好-至少得有一定的命令操作基础,因为接下去我们要用终端来干很多事情;再加上一个用得比较顺手的文本编辑工具,因为fluxbox的配置全都是通过修改它的配置文本文件(基本上保存在~/.fluxbox目录下面,也就是你当前用户的根目录下的一个名为fluxbox的目录里面,它是隐藏的)。而且在下面的操作中,除非我特别说明,否则都不用加上sudo,因为大部份的操作都是在你的地盘(你的根目录)下面操作的。

配置菜单-Menu Customization

The first file up is ~/.fluxbox/menu. This file controls the right click menu. This may be a hidden file. If you are browsing for it in Nautilus, select "Show Hidden Files" in the View menu to make it visible. Very simple syntax really. Note that if you are installing Fluxbox from a normal Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu install (ie, you already have a Window Manager), then all your apps are in the menu already and your menu file will look something like this

我们首先来搞定它的菜单配置文件(~/.fluxbox/menu),这个文件决定了你右键菜单里的一切。这个文件可能是隐藏的,如果你在Nautilus文件管理器里浏览文件,请选择->查看->显示隐藏文件。这个文件里的语法结构极为简单,如果你是在正常安装的ubuntu/kubuntu/xubuntu下安装的fluxbox(也就是说你的系统原来就有一个窗体管理器了),你会发现你原有的一些程序已由系统自动建立好一份菜单配置文件了,你也许在menu文件中会看到下面这些字符:

[begin] (fluxbox)
[include] (/etc/X11/fluxbox/fluxbox-menu)
[end]

Or at least it SHOULD. The first and last lines define the beginning and end of the menu file, so everything goes between them. That include thing pulls in the file generated in /etc/fluxbox. Its generated by the Debian Menu package (for which you need the menu package) and if thats installed before Fluxbox is, it will automagically be put in the menufile. Case in point, on my laptop I did a barebones install and installed Fluxbox before the menu package and it didn't show up (but is in the same place in /etc) but on my desktop (which has run GNOME, XFCE, and now Flux in the same install) the menu package was around long before Flux was and thus the include is there. No biggie if it isn't, you'll see how to make your own now!

至少它里面会有上面三行中的第一行(begin)和最后一行(end),这两行标志着一个菜单项的开始和结束。你所有的菜单都是往这两行之间插进去的。include那一行是对已配置好菜单文件的引用,被引用的那个菜单文件是由debain菜单管理程序建立的,这个文件在你安装fluxbox时会自动被menu文件引用(前提是你安装fluxbox之前安装了菜单管理程序)。举个例子,我先在我的本本上安装了一个基本系统(没有安装图形界面),然后在这个系统的基础上安装fluxbox,menu文件就不能实现自动引用那个菜单配置文件;而在我的台式机上,我原来的系统上已经安装了gnome和xfce,然后再安装fluxbox,那个菜单配置文件就会被自动引用了。当然这一点你不用太在意,因为我们本来就是要定制自已所需要的菜单。

So the basic syntax for an executable (normal program entry) is thus

菜单项和指向对应程序的基本语法结构是这样的:

[exec] (Name you want to show up in the menu) {command} <path to icon>
--------------------------------------------
[exec] (菜单名) {命令} <图标>

The exec says this is an executable entry. The () is the name you want to show up in the menu. Now command is what you'd type in the terminal to run this. Its also practice to use the absolute path. How do you find this? With the which command

[exec]:申明这是一个可执行的程序;(菜单名):你希望它在菜单列表中示显的名称;{命令}:你通过终端启动该程序的命令,尽量写出完整的路径

<图标>:该菜单项对应显示的图标,需要指明详细的路径,是可选项。注意:这四项必须在同一行上。

如果碰到不知道详细路径怎么办呢,很简单,用下面的which命令

[email protected]:~$ which gaim
/usr/bin/gaim

Works for any command (almost...)

这个方法对很多程序都有效(接近99.99999%吧...)

Now what about submenus? Right now any exec entry is going to be in the main menu. Its easy really

刚才我们只是在主菜单里面建立了一个菜单项,子菜单又该如何建立呢?很简单:

[submenu]  (Name of submenu) {}
stuff like execs and other submenus
[end]
----------------------
[submenu]  (子菜单名) {}
[exec] (菜单名) {命令} <图标>
[exec] (菜单名) {命令} <图标>
......
[end]

Again submenu tells it that you are making a submenu, the name is in (). The {} is just a null command and is included by convention. You can put anything you want in the submenu, just when you are done defining it close it out with the end.

(偷点懒,上面这段不译了,看图应该更好懂吧)

Now thats the basics about the Menu. Fluxbox generated all the config stuff for itself when it was installed, so its already there and you don't have to worry about it. Oh yes, you CAN have duplicate menu entries.

以上就是fluxbox菜单配置的基本过程了, Fluxbox在安装时一般会自动生成一份较为完整的菜单列表,所以当你用文本编辑器打开menu文件时如果发现里面有一大堆东西也不用惊讶,而且你还可以在菜单里引用多个菜单。

Here is the menu file from my laptop

这是我的本本上的菜单配置

[begin] (Fluxbox) {}
[exec] (Gaim) {/usr/bin/gaim}
[exec] (Firefox) {/usr/bin/firefox}
[exec] (Irssi) { x-terminal-emulator -T "irssi-text" -e /usr/bin/irssi-text}
[exec] (Bash) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Bash" -e /bin/bash --login}
[exec] (BMP) {/usr/bin/beep-media-player}
[exec] (VLC) {/usr/bin/vlc}
[exec] (F-Spot) {/usr/bin/f-spot}
[exec] (Acrobat Reader) {/usr/bin/acroread}
[submenu] (Apps) {}
[submenu] (Editors) {}
[exec] (Emacs) {/usr/bin/emacs21}
[exec] (Nano) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Nano" -e /bin/nano}
[end]
[submenu] (Net) {}
[exec] (Telnet) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Telnet" -e /usr/bin/telnet}
[exec] (w3m) { x-terminal-emulator -T "w3m" -e /usr/bin/w3m /usr/share/doc/w3m/MANUAL.html}
[end]
[submenu] (Programming) {}
[exec] (Python) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Python (v2.4)" -e /usr/bin/python2.4}
[end]
[submenu] (Shells) {}
[exec] (Dash) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Dash" -e /bin/dash -i}
[exec] (Sh) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Sh" -e /bin/sh --login}
[end]
[submenu] (System) {}
[exec] (gkrellm) { /usr/bin/gkrellm }
[submenu] (Admin) {}
[exec] (alsaconf) { x-terminal-emulator -T "alsaconf" -e /usr/sbin/su-to-root -p root -c /usr/sbin/alsaconf}
[exec] (pppconfig) { x-terminal-emulator -T "pppconfig" -e /usr/sbin/su-to-root -p root -c /usr/sbin/pppconfig}
[end]
[exec] (aptitude) { x-terminal-emulator -T "aptitude" -e /usr/bin/aptitude}
[exec] (DSL/PPPoE configuration tool) { x-terminal-emulator -T "DSL/PPPoE configuration tool" -e /usr/sbin/pppoeconf}
[exec] (GDM flexiserver) {gdmflexiserver}
[exec] (GDM flexiserver in Xnest) {gdmflexiserver -n}
[exec] (GDM Photo Setup) {gdmphotosetup}
[exec] (GDM Setup) {gksu gdmsetup}
[exec] (pstree) { x-terminal-emulator -T "pstree" -e /usr/bin/pstree.x11}
[exec] (reportbug) { x-terminal-emulator -T "reportbug" -e /usr/bin/reportbug --exit-prompt}
[exec] (Run as different user) {/usr/bin/gksuexec}
[exec] (Top) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Top" -e /usr/bin/top}
[exec] (X-Terminal as root) {/usr/bin/gksu -u root /usr/bin/x-terminal-emulator}
[end]
[end]
[submenu] (Help) {}
[exec] (Info) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Info" -e info}
[end]
[submenu] (WindowManagers) {}
[restart] (FluxBox) {/usr/bin/fluxbox}
[end]
[config] (Configuration) {}
[submenu] (Styles) {}
[stylesdir] (/usr/share/fluxbox/styles) {}
[stylesdir] (~/.fluxbox/styles) {}
[end]
[workspaces] (Workspaces) {}
[reconfig] (Reconfigure) {}
[restart] (Restart) {}
[exit] (Exit) {}
[end]

And the one from my Desktop

这是我的台式机上的菜单配置

[begin] (fluxbox)
[exec] (Evolution) {/usr/bin/evolution}
[exec] (GAIM) {/usr/bin/gaim}
[exec] (Bash) { x-terminal-emulator -T "Bash" -e /bin/bash --login}
[exec] (Epiphany) {/usr/bin/epiphany}
[exec] (BMP) {/usr/bin/beep-media-player}
[exec] (Xine) {/usr/bin/xine}
[include] (/etc/X11/fluxbox/fluxbox-menu)
[end]

You can see the difference. My Desktop had the Debian Menus before I installed Fluxbox, hence the include came into play

For further examples of what you can do with a Fluxbox menu, see this page in the Fluxbox documentation.

你很容易就可以看出两个配置的不同之处,我的台式机在安装fluxbox之前已经安装了debain菜单管理程序,如果你想查阅更多关于fluxbox示例,请点击这里浏览fluxbox官方文档 [1]

自动生成菜单-Traditional Menu Generation

If you would prefer to create a menu using the traditional method for more of a standard look, then you should follow the basic process that is outlined below.

如果你想让系统自动进行菜单的配置,可以进行如下操作

Fist extract the needed file and copy it to /usr/bin.

首先,解压需要的文件,并将它复制到/usr/bin

# cd /usr/share/doc/fluxbox
# gzip -d fluxbox-generate_menu.gz
# cp fluxbox-generate_menu /usr/bin

Now, make the file executable:

修改文件属性,让它变成可执行文件:

# chmod a+x /usr/bin/fluxbox-generate_menu

Next, it's time to generate the menu. Issue the command below as a user.

接下来就是自动生成菜单了,用你的某一个系统帐号运行以下命令:(!这段译得可能有问题)

$ cd /home/username
$ fluxbox-generate_menu

This will also create a ~/.fluxbox/menuconfig file that can be customized to your preferences. You can, for example, add GNOME or kde support to the menu, or change the default browser, terminal, etc.

这样就会生成~/.fluxbox/menuconfig文件,你可以在这个配置文件的基础上进行修改,比如加入gnome或是kde支持,或是更改默认的浏览器,终等

Finally, you need to edit the init file & change the menuFile path. Change the 'session.menuFile' entry to reflect the desired user name.

最后还需要修改init文件中的“菜单配置文件”路径,将'session.menuFile'改为指向刚才生成的那个文件

$ nano -w /home/username/.fluxbox/init
session.menuFile:       /home/username/.fluxbox/menu

Log back in and enjoy your new menu.

重新登录,就可以开始使用你的新菜单了。

快捷键设置-Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are awesome to say the least. Why reach for the mouse when you can just hit a key combo and be done? The keyboard shortcut definitions are all stored in ~/.fluxbox/keys

快捷键操作是极为便利的,只需按组合键就可以完成一些操作,何必再大费周章的去用鼠标点来点去呢?fluxbox控制快捷键的配置文件为~/.fluxbox/keys

Fluxbox comes with a few shortcuts preset, namely the familier Alt-TAB and mapping Alt+F1 through F12 to the 12 workspaces (If you have all of them enabled. By default Flux has 4 active). But we want to make our own don't we? Yup! Easy enough. Follow the syntax (again 1 per line)

Fluxbox自动设置了一些快捷键,比如你所熟悉的ALT+TAB(窗口切换)和ALT+F1至F12(workspace切换,前提是你得启动了这么多的workspace,fluxbox默认设置数量为4个)。对于很多人来说,这个系统自动设置的快捷键用起来可能并不怎么快捷(不习惯),没得说,改之!很简单,看下面的语法

<key combo> :ACTION
<组合键>:命令

Now some things need explaining. One the key names. Alt is referred to as Mod1, CTRL as Control, and the Windows key is Mod4. Most of the other keys are what you expect. However if you want to be sure, there is a tool called xev . Call it on the command line and start hitting keys. A LOT of gibberish will come up, like this

这里有几点需要先解释一下.一个是键名:Alt对应的名称是Mod1, CTRL对应的是Control, win键对应的是Mod4.其他键名则和你在键盘上看到的一样了.如果你相更保险一些,可以安装一个名为xev的软件来查询各个按键对应的名称:在终端启动它,然后按你想测试的按键,系统将会给出类似下框中的提示信息:

KeyPress event, serial 30, synthetic NO, window 0x1800001,
root 0x3e, subw 0x0, time 3967824504, (728,435), root:(799,525),
state 0x0, keycode 50 (keysym 0xffe1, Shift_L), same_screen YES,
XLookupString gives 0 bytes:
XmbLookupString gives 0 bytes:
XFilterEvent returns: False

Now most of that is gibberish that we don't need. What we want is the part in keycode <something> (keysym <something>, Shift_L) That last part (Shift_L) is what X sees the key as, thus its name. So use it (note the rules above about naming overrule this, so Alt is still Mod1, etc)

这些提示信息中大部份是我们所不关心的,我们需要的部份在第三行,也就是keycode <something> (keysym <something>, Shift_L)的那部门,它最后的部份(Shift_L)就是这个按键的名称了,直接使用这个名称即可(要注意的是,fluxbox中对 Alt,CTRL,WIN几个键的命令优先级最高,所以碰到这几个键时还是:Alt对应Mod1, CTRL对应Control, win对应Mod4)

So now we have the key names. The format for the key combo is simple. Just put down the combo! So Alt+F1 would be Mod1 F1 . Easy! Now the part after : is what the combo does. There are many options, but I am going to go through the ones I think will be most useful.

这样我们就很容易得到键盘上各个按键对应的名称了,组合键的定义格式很简单,将各个键名写进去就OK了,比如Alt+F1定义为Mod1 F1,":"后面则是这个组合键对应的操作内容了,至于各个组合键对应什么操作就完全取决于个人喜好了.

Action(动作) Description(说明)
Close Closes out the current window(关闭当前活动窗口)
Minimize Minimizes the current window(最小化当前活动窗口)
MaximizeWindow Maximizes the window(最大化当前活动窗口)
ShowDesktop Minimize all windows(显示桌面,最小化所有窗口)
Restart Restart Fluxbox(重启fluxbox)
Quit Quit Fluxbox and return to the login screen(退出fluxbox,重返登录界面)
ExecCommand Run the specified command. Either give the command or the absolute path to the program (think what you did for the menu file)(执行指定程序,可以用对应的程序名或是该程序完整的路径)


Again we have an example file from my desktop

下面是我自已设置的快捷键列表:

Mod1 Tab :NextWindow
Mod1 Shift Tab :PrevWindow
Mod1 F1 :Workspace 1
Mod1 F2 :ExecCommand fbrun ;not the default for fluxbox, but this behaves like KDE/Gnome
Mod1 F3 :Workspace 3
Mod1 F4 :Workspace 4
Mod1 F5 :Workspace 5
Mod1 F6 :Workspace 6
Mod1 F7 :Workspace 7
Mod1 F8 :Workspace 8
Mod1 F9 :Workspace 9
Mod1 F10 :Workspace 10
Mod1 F11 :Workspace 11
Mod1 F12 :Workspace 12
Mod4 F1 :ExecCommand /usr/bin/evolution
Mod4 F5 :ExecCommand x-terminal-emulator -T "Bash" -e /bin/bash --login
Mod4 F2 :ExecCommand /usr/bin/epiphany
Mod4 F3 :ExecCommand /usr/bin/xine
Mod4 F4 :ExecCommand /usr/bin/best --no-tray

设置桌面背景-Setting the Background

Now playing around with menus and keybinds is all well and good, but you want to set a background right? Easy!

到目前为止,我们已经轻松搞定了菜单和快捷键了,你可能对那单调的桌面背景产生视觉疲劳了吧?很简单,换它没商量!

fbsetbg -f /path/to/image_file

See? :D

执行上面的代码后,有没有发现你的桌面有什么变化?

Tip: "fbsetbg -l" sets the last used wallpaper as the desktop and could be added to ~.fluxbox/init as: session.screen0.rootCommand: fbsetbg -l

小技巧: "fbsetbg -l"会将你的桌面背景设回你上次使用的背景,可以将这段代码添加到~.fluxbox/init 文件中这个位置: session.screen0.rootCommand: fbsetbg -l

Note: fbsetbg is just a wrapper for other things that set wallpapers, such as Esetroot and feh. If you have one of those installed fbsetbg will determine the best one to use and use it. To find out what fbsetbg is using run fbsetbg -i

注:fbsetbh只一个别的工具(Esetroot && feh 等)的套装包,只要你安装了其中之一,fbsetbg当会自动择优使用。要查看fbsetbg调用了哪一个,可以执行:fbsetbg -i

Feh can be found in the feh package.

Feh命令可以于feh包中找到:feh

Esetroot comes with ETerm, which can be found in the eterm package.

Esetroot由ETerm自带,同样可以于eterm包中找到它:eterm

Styles

You can set the background just fine, but what about the theme. Well there is good news and bad news. The good news is that Fluxbox ships with a lot of themes (called Styles) by default. The bad news is that they only affect the windows themselves, not the "interior". That means if you are running GTK apps, then they will use the default grayish theme. Now thats good on its own, but it can really mess up a colorscheme. You can change it though, but first how to install and use Styles themselves.

样式

你能够把桌面背景设置得很漂亮,但有想过主题么?嗯,现有好坏消息各一。好消息是Fluxbox默认为我们准备了大量的主题(称为Styles)。坏消息是这样主题只能影响窗口界面,而不是“内部”。这意味着,如果你在运行一个GTK程序,这些程序将使用浅灰色的主题。尽管样式本身是不错的,但它们确实可能会打乱一个界面。所以,在你试着去改变它们之前,先得明白安装和使用它们。

Changing Styles is quite easy. Just to go the Styles submenu and click on it. Be warned though, some styles will override your background with their own, so you will have to change it back. Now what if you want to install a new style? Well first you have to know where to FIND them.

改变样式是极简单的啦。到样式子菜单,然后单击它。即使被警告,有些主题样式还会以自身的设置去改写你的桌面背景,所以你得自己再改回来。如要安装一新主题样式怎么办呢?嗯,第一步显然是得知道到哪儿能找到它们。

Here are some websites to get themes from:

这儿有一些网页不可供参考:

Once you find one you like, download the tarball to ~/.fluxbox and extract it. One of two things will happen. It will be a good tarball and just put its files into ~/.fluxbox/styles, or it will put them someplace else in ~/.fluxbox. If the former occurs, then you are all set, the theme is in the Styles menu now. In the case of the latter you will have to find its style directory and move the file in it to ~/.fluxbox/styles. Fortunately 99% of the time it will make its own directory and the style dir will be in that (this is why we extracted in ~/.fluxbox, there aren't many dirs in there to begin with so its obvious when a new one is made).

一旦找到一个你喜欢的,将之下载到目录~/.fluxbox,然后解压。以下其中之一必将发生。此包打得规范,只将它的子文件放入~/.fluxbox/styles里面;另一种情况是,它会放到~/.fluxbox目录的其它地方。前者执行的话,你的设置就完成了,这个样式已在样式菜单中了。至于后种情况,你得找到它的style目录,并将里面的文件移动到~/.fluxbox/styles目录中。绝大多数情况(99.999%)下,它会自建目录,样式目录就在里面(我们将它解压到~/.fluxbox目录,是因为那儿没几个目录,倘一个新样式被建立,会是一目了然的)。

Now thats all well and good, but I mentioned being able to apply GTK Themes. Yes you can. Install GTK Theme Switch with gtk-theme-switch and run it with switch2 . A little dialog will pop up with a dropdown of all the GTK Themes installed. Just select and apply. Keep in mind that the Style will still be in control of the Window Decorations (Titlebar, window borders, etc), so if the GTK Theme normally sets those, it won't, but the rest of it will work. A good source of GTK Themes is GNOME-Look. Stay away from the Metacity themes though. Those flat out won't work. Also if you need to install a new GTK theme, just download the tarball to ~/.themes and extract it.

The ~/.fluxbox/startup File

You've heard of ~/.fluxbox/startup, now learn how to use the thing.

Like all good scripts, this one is nicely commented out with quick instructions.

Setting the Background

To set the background (overriding the style!) uncomment the fbsetbg line and place the location of the image as the argument to fbsetbg. Then comment out the part about setting a black background.

Loading Programs when Fluxbox Starts

Near the bottom of ~/.fluxbox/startup you will find a section that reads:

# Applications you want to run with fluxbox.
# MAKE SURE THAT APPS THAT KEEP RUNNING HAVE AN ''&'' AT THE END.

Here put all the programs you want to load with Fluxbox. Some things to consider. XScreensaver (which controls the screensaver and screen locking) is not loaded Fluxbox by default, so you might want to add it to the startup script with xscreensaver & . The trailing ampersand (&) tells it to run in the background , like it should). This goes the same for other programs like the Beagle daemon, beagled & . For other programs, like GAIM, GKrellm (which is a REALLY good complement to Fluxbox), and anything else you want starting just put the command.

Dockapps and The Slit

Dockapps are small "dockable" applications which reside in a small "Dock" (which, in Fluxbox's terminology, is called "the slit") on one corner of your screen. They can be informative (clocks, calendars, system info), functional (volume controls, drive mounting utilities), convenient (controls for other applications), or even merely entertaining (minigames, fortune cookie displays, etc.). The vast majority of dockapps seem to have been originally developed for the WindowMaker and AfterStep window-managers, but work fine within Fluxbox. A good selection of them is available in the Ubuntu repositories (if you want to have a look, execute sudo apt-cache search dockapp in a terminal window), and many more can be found and compiled should you wish to do so.

You can load your dockapps when Fluxbox starts up by including them in ~/.fluxbox/startup the same way you start any other program in the startup file: simply type the command, followed by a trailing ampersand (&).

Some popular dockapps can be found in the Universe repositories and can be installed using apt-get or Synaptic:

wmxmms: used to control XMMS (play, pause, next, previous, volume, position)
wmcpuload: displays the CPU load in percentage
wmmemload: displays how much memory is used
wmweather, wmweather+: displays the weather
wmclockmon: displays the date and time
docker: a dock
wmmount: mount/unmount/open volumes such as cdrom drives and harddisks
wmmatrix: shows the matrix screensaver just for fun
wmtop: shows the current running processes that use most resources at the moment
Gnome Support

Many people like to use Nautilus, Gnome themes, or even the Gnome panel in Fluxbox. In order for this to function smoothly, the following must be added to your startup script:

GSDPID=`pidof gnome-settings-daemon`
if [  "x$GSDPID" == "x" ]; then
gnome-settings-daemon &
fi
Starting Fluxbox

Right at the bottom is the command to start Fluxbox. Notice that here we are running /usr/bin/fluxbox WITHOUT a trailing ampersand (&).

Further Resources

  • Main Fluxbox site
  • The Fluxbox project's own Documentation pages are an invaluable resource. Printable documentation is available there for offline reading in PDF format. Translations are also available in many languages.
  • The Gentoo Wiki contains an excellent Fluxbox Howto, to which this document is also greatly indebted.
  • The Debian Wiki contains a lot of material very centric to this page.

For those who need Fluxbox for extremely lightweight installations, the following resources will be particularly useful:

  • The Installation/LowMemorySystems wikipage should be your first port of call. A (very) minimalistic fluxbox installation is described there.
  • This site has detailed instructions for a lightweight Fluxbox installation using XDM as a display manager.

( To do: xcompmgr and transparency howto )