Convice讨论 | 贡献2007年12月15日 (六) 22:27的版本

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How to install Ubuntu on low memory systems (Pentium III and earlier machines, with 32-192 MB RAM).

怎样在低内存的系统上安装Ubuntu(Pentium III或更早的,配有32-192MB内存的机器)


Installing Ubuntu on any system requires at least 32Mb of memory: The text-based installer included with the alternate (install) CDs needs that much space to run reliably. Smaller memory configurations run into problems, and while not impossible, it can be very difficult to complete an installation with less than the minimum RAM requirement.

在任何系统上安装Ubuntu至少需要32Mb内存:包含在alternate (install) CDs的基于字符的安装程序需要这些空间来可靠运行。更小的内存配置可能会遇到问题,虽然不是不可能,但如果内存小于最低的需求,要完成安装十分困难。

Depending on the hardware requirements, you can expect a sparse Ubuntu system to boot to a graphical desktop on anywhere from 19Mb to 54Mb. That requirement will fluctuate with the system demands, and increase while the system is active. Swap space is crucial to low-memory machines, so don't be stingy when setting up your system.



There is no practical speed requirement, although a slower processor will take more time to finish installing. Some Pentium machines will take hours to complete, simply because the CPU takes longer to finish. As a general benchmark, a 75Mhz machine finishes a command-line installation of Ubuntu 7.04 in about four hours, and a 120Mhz machine finishes in perhaps an hour less than that. 200Mhz and faster machines will see a still stronger improvement.

对处理器的速度没有什么实际的需求,然而低速度的处理器将要花更多的时间来完成安装。仅仅是因为CPU花了太多的时间,一些Pentium机将要花费几个小时来完成安装。根据通常的基准测试,一台75Mhz的机器要4个小时来完成基于命令行的Ubuntu 7.04的安装,一台120Mhz的要比它少用一个小时。200Mhz或是更快的机器将会有更强的提升。

If you do decide to install Ubuntu on a legacy machine, be patient. There will come times when you think the machine has stopped or is hung, when in fact it's still moving, albeit at a very slow rate.



Disk space on an absolutely minimal installation can be reduced to as little as 500Mb. A fresh and clean server installation of Ubuntu 7.04 generally takes only 300Mb, although there will be minor variations on account of hardware differences.

磁盘空间在绝对最小安装的情况下可以减少到500Mb。虽然对于不同的硬件会有很小的变化,一个干净的Ubuntu 7.04 服务器的安装通常只需要300Mb。


These instructions assume you will have a working Internet connection and access to the universe and multiverse repositories. Configuring your hardware is not included on this page.

这份指南假设你有一个可用的互联网连接并且可以访问universe and multiverse repositories.它不包括对你硬件的配置。

安装Ubuntu Server

The server version of Ubuntu is a sparse command-line system, without any graphical elements. It's a text-only version of what lies underneath all the advanced graphical elements. It's also the starting point for a minimal installation.


Ubuntu 6.06

To install a base system, boot from the alternate (install) CD and choose "Install a server."

Follow the prompts to complete installation.

启动alternate(install)CD,选择"Install a server"。按提示完成安装。

Ubuntu 6.10, 7.04, 或 7.10

To install a base system, boot from the alternate (install) CD and choose "Install a command-line system."

Follow the prompts to complete installation.

启动alternate(install)CD,选择"Install a command-line system."。按提示完成安装。



Once the server install is complete, you will probably want to edit your UbuntuHelp:sources.list file.


sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list

Uncomment all official repositories by removing # at the beginning of the line. Do not uncomment the narrative portions of that file; in other words, where you see a double hash mark (##) leave those lines alone.



Now you should update your system. Return to the command line and type:


sudo aptitude update

It's probably also a good idea to upgrade your system at this point. Use this command to upgrade your system:


sudo aptitude upgrade (或者, 对于 Gutsy: sudo aptitude safe-upgrade)

Now you should be ready to install a window manager and some programs.



The absolute minimum for any graphical environment is X.org



On Ubuntu Edgy (6.10), Feisty (7.04), and Gutsy (7.10), use the command:

在 Ubuntu Edgy (6.10), Feisty (7.04), 和 Gutsy (7.10), 用下面的命令:

sudo aptitude install xorg

On Ubuntu Dapper (6.06), use the command:

在 Ubuntu Dapper (6.06), 用下面的命令:

sudo aptitude install x-window-system-core


This package gives you the framework for an X session, complete with a variety of drivers and configuration files. Installing xorg (or x-window-system-core) also triggers the self-configuration sequence, so when it finishes, your hardware should be ready to use, barring any errors or incompatibilities.


It's important to note that installing xorg or x-window-system-core really doesn't leave you with much. You can start X at this point with this command:



but without a window manager and some software, you probably won't get much done.



A window manager controls the placement and appearance of windows within a graphical user interface.


There are many lightweight window managers that will give you better access to your system through the X layer. Each one has its own way of managing the desktop, and its own way of configuring themes and menus.



"Openbox" is one of the lightest, fastest window managers available, but can take some time to configure and set up. It has its origins in Blackbox, but newer versions are complete rewrites of the Blackbox code.


Install Openbox with this command:


 sudo aptitude install openbox obconf openbox-themes

These packages and their dependencies will allow you to build and configure an Openbox system, along with a choice of themes and some configuration options.


Note: Edgy (Ubuntu 6.10) users should note a small discrepancy in obconf that might prevent it from running. You can correct that with these commands ...

注意:Edgy (Ubuntu 6.10)用户必须注意"obconf"一个可能会使其无法运行的小问题。你可以用下面的命令解决这个问题。

cd /usr/lib
sudo ln libobparser.so.0.4.0 libobparser.so.1
sudo ln libobrender.so.0.4.0 libobrender.so.1
sudo ldconfig -X

Entering obconf in an X terminal window should now trigger the obconf dialogue.



"IceWM" has a very strong following as a good, clean, fast window manager that resembles a conventional "desktop" in many ways. Among many of its perks are themes that resemble the Windows XP desktop theme -- which may be appealing to you.

"IceWM"很受欢迎,因为它是一个很好的,干净的,很快的窗口管理器,它还集成了一个可选择的桌面。在它的众多优点中有一个可能会吸引你:它集成了Windows XP桌面主题。

Install IceWM with this command:


sudo aptitude install icewm iceconf icepref iceme icewm-themes

When finished, you will have a number of configuration and menu options. You can start IceWM with the startx command.



"Fluxbox" is a beautiful, highly configurable desktop system that is easy on system resources without compromising on graphical appeal. Fluxbox is the default window manager for a number of Linux distributions, probably most notable among them being Damn Small Linux.

"Fluxbox" 是一种漂亮的,高度可配置的桌面系统,它对系统资源要求不高却没有损失图形的吸引力。"Fluxbox" 是许多Linux发开版的默认窗口管理器,可能大部分都在Damn Small Linux上。

Install Fluxbox with this command:


sudo aptitude install fluxbox fluxconf

Once installed, you can start Fluxbox with the startfluxbox command. Remember, if you enjoy working with Fluxbox, you should consider Fluxbuntu as an option.

安装好以后,你可以用startfluxbox命令启动它。记住,如果你很喜欢使用Fluxbox,你可以考虑 Fluxbuntu 作为一种选择。


"FVWM-Crystal" is a complete set of configuration scripts which sit atop of FVWM. FVWM-Crystal has support for integrated access to music players, terminal emulators and system monitors. It boasts some of the finest eye candy available to low-end machines, and is a snap to install.

"FVWM-Crystal" 是基于FVWM的一些配置脚本。"FVWM-Crystal" 支持对音乐播放器,终端和系统监视的集成访问。它号称是在低配置机器上可用的最漂亮的窗口管理器,并且它可以很快的安装。

For more information about building an FVWM-Crystal desktop, check out the ["FVWM-Crystal"] page.



XFCE is heavier than any of the systems mentioned so far, but has some added functions as a result. You can try XFCE alone if you like, but if you're keen on an XFCE installation, look into Xubuntu as an option.

XFCE 相对于目前已经提到的轻量级窗口管理器来说都更“重”,但是是因为增加了一些应用的。如果你喜欢,你可以单独党旗XFCE,但如果你一定要安装XFCE,请查看 Xubuntu

Install XFCE alone, without Xubuntu, with this command:


sudo aptitude install xfce4

It's worth noting that some Edgy users have difficulty starting XFCE from a minimal install. The normal start command for XFCE -- startxfce4 -- doesn't seem to be properly configured in Edgy.

对于Edgy用户来讲,这是没有用的,从最小化安装启动XFCE是有困难的。XFCE的启动命令-- startxfce4 -- 看起来好像在Edgy上没有配置好。

If you want the entire Xubuntu package, which includes a full suite of software and a lot of improvements, try this command:


sudo aptitude install xubuntu-desktop

That will download quite a large amount of packages; you may want to consider installing Xubuntu fresh, from the installation ISO.

这将要下载很多的软件包;你可能想从 installation ISO干净的安装Xubuntu。

Note: Xubuntu will use more system resources and may not be optimal for a low memory system with limited disk space, but it is lighter than a standard Ubuntu system.

注意: Xubuntu 将会使用更多的系统资源,而且可能对于一个硬盘空间和内存都有限的系统来讲不是最好的选择,但是它比标准的Ubuntu系统“轻”。


Now that the graphical window manager is set up, it's time to add some necessary and recommended packages. These will add additional functionality and make using the system easier. Additionally, adding a graphical package manager will provide an easy method to manage installed applications and packages.



Login managers will assist in choosing a graphical environment and will not require the user to start x.org to get into the window manager.


It's important to note that it's not necessary to use a login manager. If you're willing to log in at the command line and start X manually, you can save yourself a lot of system resources -- and the time it takes to load them. That can be a more appealing option on older machines.



GDM is the Ubuntu default for a login manager. However, GDM has a reputation of being a heavyweight, and on a system that needs as little bulk as possible, you might find it to be a burden. If you've got a decent system, install it using:


sudo aptitude install gdm


KDM is another manager, but has the same heavy reputation as GDM.


sudo aptitude install kdm


XDM is the login manager for straight X, and while less beautiful than GDM or KDM, it can perform in the same role without fuss.


sudo aptitude install xdm


Now that your system is up and running, it would be a good idea to add an internet browser to surf the web and get some use out of the machine!



Web browsers come in many flavors, and the most prevalent -- Firefox -- can be laggy on low-memory or slow systems. Even the GNU version of Firefox, Iceweasel can be a bit heavy on older machines. If you've got at least 128 mb of memory, Firefox should work just fine.

Firefox是适用于很多Linux发行版,是最流行的浏览器。它对于低内存或者低速的系统来讲,可能有点难以应付。甚至是GNU版本的Firefox,Iceweasel 对于老的机器来讲也有些“重”。如果你有多于128mb的内存,Firefox可以运行的很好。用以下命令安装它:

sudo aptitude install firefox 


While not nearly as full-featured as Firefox, Dillo has the advantages of a very small footprint and few resource requirements.


sudo aptitude install dillo


Many lightweight desktop systems use iDesk as a way of including customized, clickable icons directly on the desktop. iDesk is maintained in the Ubuntu repositories, and is installable from the command line with:


sudo aptitude install idesk

Consult the iDesk wiki for instructions on how to configure and use iDesk. For icon sets, you may wish to search the repositories, or download them from third-party customization sites, such as Gnome-Look.org and similar locations.

访问iDesk wiki来获取配置和使用iDesk的命令。你可能要搜索软件仓库或从第三方的配置网站上下载图标,像Gnome-Look.org及相似的网站。


Lightweight systems have a number of options available for graphical file management. Thunar is the default file manager in Xubuntu and many XFCE-based systems; it is installable alone with this command:


sudo aptitude install thunar

XFE is an even lighter file manager, intended to mimic the Windows Explorer interface. It has very few dependencies and is very fast.

XFE是一种更“轻”的文件管理器,它模仿了Windwos Explorer接口。它只依赖很少的软件包而且非常快。用下面命令安装它:

sudo aptitude install xfe

ROX-Filer is another file management program, which makes extensive use of drag-and-drop principles. It does appear to have a large number of dependencies however, which means installing it may entail more external packages than you wish. Install ROX-Filer with this command:


sudo aptitude install rox-filer

Nautilus is the default file manager for Ubuntu. It requires some more resources, but it has a lot of useful features. It can manage your desktop, show a wallpaper and desktop icons, which are automatically created for new devices (e.g. USB flash drives). Install Nautilus using this command:


sudo apt-get install nautilus

To use it together with a window manager, execute the following command or add it to your autostart script. For example, use $HOME/.icewm/startup for IceWM.


nautilus --no-default-window & 

Some other popular file managers include


There are many others. Some are available through the repositories; others will require you to download and install them through another source. Experiment with different file managers to see which ones appeal to you.



Add a graphical package manager to install, remove and upgrade software packages and to add repositories without using the command line. Synaptic package manager is the standard and can be installed with this command:


sudo aptitude install synaptic

You can use the package manager to add a word processor, such as Abiword, and other productivity software.



Building on the ideas above, here are some complete graphical systems, installable through a single command line. Feel free to mix and match between these options.


Remember: If you are using Dapper or earlier, replace "xorg" with "x-window-system-core"


  • IceWM as a window manager, plus GDM, Firefox, Abiword and the Synaptic package manager:
  • IceWM是窗口管理器,加上GDM,Firefox,Abiword和新立得软件包管理器。
sudo aptitude install gdm xorg xterm icewm menu mozilla-firefox abiword synaptic

  • XFCE and Firefox, with Synaptic package manager and KDM as the login manager:
  • XFCE,Firefox,再加上新立得软件包管理器和登录管理器KDM。

sudo aptitude install kdm xorg xfce4 firefox synaptic

  • Fluxbox with Dillo, and XDM as a login manager:
  • Fluxbox,Dillo,和XDM
sudo aptitude install fluxbox xorg xdm dillo

  • Openbox with no login manager, XFE as the file manager and xfce4-terminal as an X terminal, as well as Openbox themes and the Tango icon set:


sudo aptitude install openbox obconf openbox-themes xfe xfce4-terminal tango-icon-theme-extras xorg

Remember to check the repositories for more ideas on software and applications!



For a minimalistic system that does not require as much configuration, you can install the alternate window managers after installing a full K/X/Ubuntu system, thus preinstalling much of the required software but keeping the speed. However, installing a full system does require more system resources.



  • FluxBuntu: An Ubuntu variant with Fluxbox as the default window manager. An excellent place to start for a Fluxbox-based system.
  • UbuntuLite: An early project to build a stripped-down version of Ubuntu aimed at low-end machines. The project also seems to have stalled.
  • Cubuntu is not a graphical system; Cubuntu is a full-featured command line system, suitable for computers that can't handle any of the above options -- such as early Pentium or perhaps even 486-grade machines with as little as 16Mb RAM. And don't be skeptical: Even without a graphic environment, a computer can perform a lot more tasks than you would expect. B)
  • Enlightenment is another window manager, but it is still in development and requires additional steps to install. However, it is very lightweight and functional.
  • gOS is an operating system based on Ubuntu, uses a customized version of Enlightenment as its window manager, and is able to run on some older systems.