- 1 Installing Ubuntu Linux to your hard drive from LiveCD.
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Let's Begin
- 1.2.1 Before you start
- 1.2.2 Boot the system from your desired Live CD
- 1.2.3 Create New Partition
- 1.2.4 Make File Systems on hard disk partitions
- 1.2.5 Create and mount partitions
- 1.2.6 Setup Networking
- 1.2.7 Install cloop-utils
- 1.2.8 Populate file system
- 1.2.9 Mount uncompressed file system
- 1.2.10 Copy filesystem to new partition
- 1.2.11 Configure internet connection and network interfaces
- 1.2.12 Change over to your new filesystem
- 1.2.13 Edit /etc/fstab (file system information)
- 1.2.14 Add yourself to the visudoers list
- 1.2.15 Install GRUB
- 1.2.16 Update the Kernel Image Configuration File
- 1.2.17 Generate Grub config file
- 1.2.18 Remake initrd
- 1.3 Post Install
Installing Ubuntu Linux to your hard drive from LiveCD.
These instructions are obsolete because as of Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, the LiveCD now comes with a simple "install" button right on the desktop which handles all of this for you. However, these instructions are probably still useful for reference and/or historical purposes and/or troubleshooting and/or people who need to create a custom install.
The Ubuntu Live CD's may be installed to hard drive. The process to be followed is similar to the one followed by the Knoppix and DSL installer scripts Credits: This howto is based upon the Installing Ubuntu Hoary from LiveCD , but has been updated. This method works for the Ubuntu and the Kubuntu live cds. This is also the ONLY method to install Ebuntu to your Hard Drive. Warning: This method worked for me. If you do something wrong, you may screw up your system. This has not been tested on SCSI systems. SCSI systems require kernel recompilation and that is beyond the scope of this Howto. Proceed at your own risk. Also I expect that you are comfortable with the command line interface in particular and Linux in general.
Be careful! There are no seat belts attached here!. People who have experience with Gentoo Linux will feel at home though.. Ideally , you should try this out on a spare hard disk. Although a spare partition would do too. Just be careful when you are installing grub in that case.
Before you start
Assume that all the data that you have on your hard disk is going to get lost. Thus you have two alternatives here 1) Backup all your data on CD's/DVD's/Network etc. 2) Install on a spare hard disk (Highly recommended for novices) What we will do here is to do by hand what the installer does automatically. Advantages of this approach: This method allows you to have finer grained control of the installation than the default Ubuntu installer Disadvantages: If you screw up, you'll have to start all over again, from the first step! Now that you know what you're getting into, let's proceed. NOTE: 1) Warnings are bold. 2) The commands that you have to type are in italics.
Boot the system from your desired Live CD
Boot from your Ubuntu , Kubuntu or Ebuntu live cd. Perform all the customizations that you would normally perform. These include 1) Setting up your internet connection. (REQUIRED) 2) Setting up your repostories (REQUIRED) (If you dont know how to do it, please read How to install software 3) Any other customizations (OPTIONAL)
Create New Partition
Let us assume that you are going to install on /dev/hda1 and that the swap partion will be /dev/hda2
sudo fdisk /dev/hda
fdisk is pretty easy to use. if you are not comfortable, please read Using fdisk to partition your disk Make 2 partitions, one for / and another for swap. Let swap be the first partion and the / be the other partition. The above configuration is a generic configuration. It is almost guranteed to work on all situations NOTE TO EXPERTS : You can also setup /home /usr etc. .. partitions as per your own needs.
Make File Systems on hard disk partitions
Make the swap partition
Make the / (root) partition
NOTE: There are lots of options while making file systems. For more info Creating Filesystems
Create and mount partitions
mount /dev/hda1 /mnt
NOTE: Replace /dev/hda1 with your / partion. This is also the time to mount /usr /home etc if you have made them seperately.
sudo apt-get install cloop-utils
Populate file system
Note: This step will take a lot of time.
extract_compressed_fs /cdrom/casper/filesystem.cloop > /mnt/extracted_fs
Mount uncompressed file system
mount /mnt/extracted_fs /mnt/cloop -o loop
Copy filesystem to new partition
Note: This step will take a lot of time.
rsync -av /mnt/cloop/* /mnt/
Configure internet connection and network interfaces
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/etc/resolv.conf
mount -t proc proc /mnt/proc
cp /etc/network/interfaces /mnt/etc/network/interfaces
Change over to your new filesystem
Chroot into your new filesystem, so that all changes get made in the new partition.
chroot /mnt /bin/bash
Edit /etc/fstab (file system information)
sudo vi /etc/fstab
and enter the following lines
# /etc/fstab: static file system information. <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass> proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 /dev/hda2 / ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro 0 1 /dev/hda1 none swap sw 0 0 /dev/hdb /media/cdrom0 udf,iso9660 user,noauto 0 0
NOTE: man fstab for more. I have assumed here that the cdrom drive is the primary slave and HD is the primary master.
Add yourself to the visudoers list
GRUB is the bootloader. It is required for booting your system.
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install grub
Update the Kernel Image Configuration File
sudo vi /etc/kernel-img.conf
and type the following :
# Do not create symbolic links in / do_symlinks = no relative_links = yes do_bootloader = no do_bootfloppy = no do_initrd = yes link_in_boot = no postinst_hook = /sbin/update-grub postrm_hook = /sbin/update-grub
Generate Grub config file
This will make a new menu.lst file and then , to insall grub:
cp /lib/grub/i386-pc/* /boot/grub
grub grub> root (hd0,4) grub> setup (hd0) grub> quit
initrd is the intial ramdisk, it is the most vital part during the booting process. You should remove the current initrd file and run mkinitrd as the last step before rebooting. So any needed drivers at boot time will be available. This fixes a VFS root mount error you might get if you use ext3, sata, scsi, etc.
rm /boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-3-386 (—change this if needed—)
mkinitrd -o initrd.img-2.6.10-3-386 2.6.10-3-386
Reboot, taking out the LiveCD. If you’ve got everything right, you’ll now have a running Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Ebuntu installation. If not, boot up the LiveCD and fix the problems. You'll probably have to start over again :-)